best photos of Ralph Richardson

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Life and arrangement

Early years

Richardson was born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, the third son and youngest child of Arthur Richardson and his consort Lydia (née Russell). The couple had met while twain were in Paris, studying with the painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Arthur Richardson had been senior knowledge lord at Cheltenham Ladies' College from 1893.

She eloped with me, then aged four. Richardson on his mother'sbreakup of the family

In 1907 the family divide up; there was no part or customary disunion, preserve the two senior boys, Christopher and Ambrose, remained with their father and Lydia left them, taking Ralph with her. The avowed rise of the couple's disunion was a order over Lydia's option of wallpaper for her husband's application. According to John Miller's biography, whatever underlying causes there may occupy been are mysterious. An earlier biographer, Garry O'Connor, speculates that Arthur Richardson might occupy been having an extramarital matter. There does not look to occupy been a pious component, although Arthur was a dedicated Quaker, whose leading two sons were brought up in that faith, since Lydia was a pious change to Roman Catholicism, in which she raised Ralph. Mother and son had a difference of homes, the leading of which was a bungalow converted from two railway carriages in Shoreham-by-Sea on the south coast of England.

Lydia wanted Richardson to befit a priest. In Brighton he served as an altar boy, which he enjoyed, preserve when sent at almost fifteen to the nearby Xaverian College, a nursery for trainee priests, he ran far. As a pupil at a order of schools he was uninterested in most subjects and was an lukewarm pupil. His Latin was indigent, and during church services he would improvise parts of the Latin responses, developing a genius for invention when recollection failed that proved appropriable in his later arrangement.

I was too lazy to be a painter ... I hadn't the persistency – preserve then I hadn't got very abundant genius. Richardson on histime at knowledge school

In 1919, aged sixteen, Richardson took a post as labor boy with the Brighton limb of the Liverpool and Victoria insurance aggregation. The remuneration, ten shillings a week, was alluring, preserve labor vitality was not; he lacked concentration, frequently posting documents to the unfit nation as rightly as attractive in pranks that alarmed his superiors. His fatherly grandmother died and left him £500, which, he later said, transformed his vitality. He resigned from the labor post, exact in period to leave being dismissed, and enrolled at the Brighton School of Art. His studies there convinced him that he lacked creativity, and that his drawing skills were not rectitude adequate.

Richardson left the knowledge school in 1920, and considered how else he might create a arrangement. He briefly reflection of pharmacy and then of journalism, abandoning each when he conversant how abundant application the precedent required and how difficult mastering shorthand for the latter would be. He was quiet unsure what to do, when he saw Sir Frank Benson as Hamlet in a touring origination. He was thrilled, and felt at once that he must befit an agent.

Buttressed by what was left of the legacy from his grandmother, Richardson determined to acquire to act. He paid a local dramatic director, Frank R Growcott, ten shillings a week to be a limb of his aggregation and be taught the art of an agent. He made his stage debut in December 1920 with Growcott's St Nicholas Players at the St Nicholas Hall, Brighton, a converted bacon factory. He played a gendarme in an accommodation of Les Misérables, and was betimes entrusted with larger parts including Banquo in Macbeth and Malvolio in Twelfth Night.

Early arrangement

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1921

The heyday of the touring agent-director was nearing its end preserve some companies quiet flourished. As rightly as Benson's, there were those of Sir John Martin-Harvey, Ben Greet, and, one slightly less prestigious, Charles Doran. Richardson wrote to total four managers: the leading two did not replicate; Greet saw him preserve had no vacancy; Doran occupied him, at a undertake of £3 a week. Richardson made his leading advent as a professional agent at the Marina Theatre, Lowestoft, in August 1921, as Lorenzo in The Merchant of Venice. He remained with Doran's aggregation for most of the next two years, gradually gaining more expressive roles, including Banquo in Macbeth and Mark Antony in Julius Caesar.

Two of Richardson's mentorsCharles DoranSir Barry Jackson

Doran's aggregation specialised in the classics, principally Shakespeare. After two years of period costumes Richardson felt the press to act in a existing act. He left Doran in 1923 and toured in a novel play, Outward Bound by Sutton Vane. He returned to the classics in August 1924, in Nigel Playfair's touring origination of The Way of the World, playing Fainall. While on that bound he married Muriel Hewitt, a young limb of Doran's aggregation, known to him as "Kit". To his big enjoyment, the two were powerful to act unitedly for most of 1925, twain being occupied by Sir Barry Jackson of the Birmingham Repertory Theatre for a touring origination of The Farmer's Wife. From December of that year they were members of the main repertory aggregation in Birmingham. Through Jackson's chief ruler, the habitue taskmaster H K Ayliff, Richardson "absorbed the effect of older contemporaries equal Gerald du Maurier, Charles Hawtrey and Mrs Patrick Campbell." Hewitt was seen as a rising star preserve Richardson's talents were not besides so bulk; he was allotted supporting roles such as Lane in The Importance of Being Earnest and Albert Prossor in Hobson's Choice.

Richardson made his London debut in July 1926 as the foreigner in Oedipus at Colonus in a Sunday-night accomplishment at the Scala Theatre, with a hurl including Percy Walsh, John Laurie and D A Clarke-Smith. He then toured for three months in Eden Phillpotts's comedy Devonshire Cream with Jackson's aggregation led by Cedric Hardwicke.

When Phillpotts's next comedy, Yellow Sands, was to be mounted at the Haymarket Theatre in the West End, Richardson and his consort were twain hurl in rectitude roles. The play opened in November 1926 and ran until September 1928; with 610 performances it was the longest London despatch of Richardson's total arrangement. During the despatch Muriel Hewitt began to exhibit early symptoms of encephalitis lethargica, a progressive and ultimately calamitous illness.

Peggy Ashcroft in 1936, nigh the commencement of her protracted professional junction with Richardson

Richardson left the despatch of Yellow Sands in March 1928 and rejoined Ayliff, playing Pygmalion in Back to Methuselah at the Royal Court Theatre; also in the hurl was a precedent helper from the Birmingham Repertory, Laurence Olivier. The critics began to contemplation Richardson and he gained some favourable reviews. As Tranio in Ayliff's existing-garniture origination of The Taming of the Shrew, Richardson played the symbol as a breezy londoner, alluring eulogize for turning a usually dreary role into something richly entertaining. For the quiet of 1928 he appeared in what Miller describes as separate unremarkable existing plays. For abundant of 1929 he toured South Africa in Gerald Lawrence's aggregation in three period unvarying plays, including The School for Scandal, in which he played Joseph Surface. The sole speculation into melodious comedy of his arrangement was in Silver Wings in the West End and on bound. It was not a personal conquest; the ruler's final command to the aggregation was, "For God's account don't permit Richardson sing". In May 1930 Richardson was given the role of Roderigo in Othello in what seemed likely to be a prestigious origination, with Paul Robeson in the inscription role. The biographer Ronald Hayman writes that though a slim singer, "Robeson had no ear for blank verse" and plane Peggy Ashcroft's grand accomplishment as Desdemona was not adequate to preserve the origination from failure. Ashcroft's notices were laudatory, while Richardson's were mixed; they admired each other and worked unitedly frequently during the next four decades.

Old Vic, 1930–32

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1930

The Old Vic (photographed in 2012)

In 1930 Richardson, with some misgivings, accepted an invitation to join The Old Vic aggregation. The theatre, in an unfashionable location south of the Thames, had offered inexpensive tickets for opera and drama below its proprietor Lilian Baylis since 1912. Its profile had been raised considerably by Baylis's producer, Harcourt Williams, who in 1929 persuaded the young West End star John Gielgud to conduct the drama aggregation. For the following period Williams wanted Richardson to join, with a behold to succeeding Gielgud from 1931 to 1932. Richardson agreed, though he was not certain of his occupy suitability for a principally Shakespearean repertoire, and was not enthusiastic almost working with Gielgud: "I establish his clothes untamed, I establish his talk flippant. He was the New Young Man of his period and I didn't equal him."

The leading origination of the period was Henry IV, Part 1, with Gielgud as Hotspur and Richardson as Prince Hal; the latter was reflection by The Daily Telegraph "alive, preserve a aspect of existing comedy rather than Shakespeare." Richardson's notices, and the relationship of the two leading men, improved markedly when Gielgud, who was playing Prospero, helped Richardson with his accomplishment as Caliban in The Tempest:

He gave me almost two hundred ideas, as he usually does, twenty-five of which I eagerly seized on, and when I went far I reflection, "This chap, you discern, I don't equal him very abundant preserve by God he knows something almost this here play." ... And then eviscerate of that we formed a friendship.

The friendship and professional junction lasted until the end of Richardson's vitality. Gielgud wrote in 1983, "Besides cherishing our protracted years of act unitedly in the theatre, where he was such an inspiring and grand associate, I grew to affection him in particular vitality as a big gentleman, a rare air, unclose and balanced, devotedly obedient and forbearing and, as a associate, bursting with vitality, inquisitiveness and humour." Among Richardson's other parts in his leading Old Vic period, Enobarbus in Antony and Cleopatra gained specially rectitude notices. The Morning Post commented that it placed him in the leading order of Shakespearean actors. At the commencement of 1931 Baylis re-opened Sadler's Wells Theatre with a origination of Twelfth Night starring Gielgud as Malvolio and Richardson as Sir Toby Belch. W. A. Darlington in The Daily Telegraph wrote of Richardson's "perfect, wealthy and perfect Sir Toby, I would go numerous miles to perceive again."

During the summer fracture between the Old Vic 1930–31 and 1931–32 seasons, Richardson played at the Malvern Festival, below the course of his aged Birmingham ruler, Ayliff. Salaries at the Old Vic and the Festival were not big, and Richardson was fortunate of a job as an extra in the 1931 film Dreyfus. As his consort's position worsened he needed to remuneration for more and more nursing; she was looked behind in a following of hospitals and attention homes.

Succeeding Gielgud as leading man at the Old Vic, Richardson had a varied period, in which there were perceptible successes interspersed with fastidious failures. James Agate was not convinced by him as the domineering Petruchio in The Taming of the Shrew; in Julius Caesar the total hurl accepted tepid reviews. In Othello Richardson divided the critics. He emphasised the plausible spell of the murderous Iago to a grade that Agate reflection "very rectitude Richardson, preserve lukewarm Shakespeare", since The Times said, "He never stalked or hissed equal a bulk scoundrel, and, in truth, we occupy rarely seen a man smile and smile and be a scoundrel so adequately." His biggest achievement of the period was as Bottom in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Both Agate and Darlington commented on how the agent transformed the symbol from the bumbling artisan to the magically changed being on whom Titania dotes. Agate wrote that most of those who had played the portion hitherto "look to occupy reflection Bottom, with the ass's apex on, was the identical Bottom, one funnier. Shakespeare says he was 'translated', and Mr Richardson translated him." With Sybil Thorndike as a visitor star and Richardson as Ralph, The Knight of the Burning Pestle was a smite with audiences and critics, as was a revival of Twelfth Night, with Edith Evans as Viola and Richardson again playing Sir Toby, finishing the period to renewed eulogize.

West End and Broadway

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1932. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

Richardson returned to the Malvern Festival in August 1932. He was in four plays, the continue of which, Bernard Shaw's Too True to Be Good, transferred to the New Theatre in London the following month. The play was not liked by audiences and ran for one forty-seven performances, preserve Richardson, in Agate's phrase, "ran far with the piece", and established himself as a West End star. In 1933 he had his leading speaking portion in a film, playing the scoundrel, Nigel Hartley, in The Ghoul, which starred Cedric Hardwicke and Boris Karloff. The following year he was hurl in his leading starring role in a film, as the hero in The Return of Bulldog Drummond. The Times commented, "Mr Ralph Richardson makes Drummond as brave and dull on the abattis as he is in print."

Katharine Cornell, leading lady in Richardson's Broadway debut

Over the next two years Richardson appeared in six plays in London ranging from Peter Pan (as Mr Darling and Captain Hook) to Cornelius, an allegorical play written for and dedicated to him by J B Priestley. Cornelius ran for two months; this was less than expected, and left Richardson with a gap in engagements in the second half of 1935. He filled it by accepting an invitation from Katharine Cornell and Guthrie McClintic to play Mercutio in their origination of Romeo and Juliet on a US bound and on Broadway. Romeo was played by Maurice Evans and Juliet by Cornell. Richardson's accomplishment greatly impressed American critics, and Cornell invited him to recur to New York to co-star with her in Macbeth and Antony and Cleopatra, though nothing came of this.

In 1936 London Films released Things to Come, in which Richardson played the swaggering warlord "The Boss". His accomplishment parodied the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini so effectively that the film was immediately banned in Italy. The producer was Alexander Korda; the two men formed a protracted and mutually gainful friendship. Richardson later said of Korda, "Though not so very abundant older than I am, I regarded him in a form as a father, and to me he was as grand as a prince." In May 1936 Richardson and Olivier jointly directed and starred in a novel piece by Priestley, Bees on the Boatdeck. Both actors won excellent notices, preserve the play, an apologue of Britain's decline, did not effect the open. It closed behind four weeks, the continue in a following of West End marvellous in which Richardson appeared to abundant acclaim preserve which were box-labor failures. In August of the identical year he finally had a protracted-running star portion, the inscription role in Barré Lyndon's comedy thriller, The Amazing Dr Clitterhouse, which played for 492 performances, closing in October 1937.

After a brief despatch in The Silent Knight, described by Miller as "a Hungarian fantasy in rhymed verse seat in the fifteenth century", Richardson returned to the Old Vic for the 1937–38 period, playing Bottom once again and switching parts in Othello, playing the inscription role, with Olivier as Iago. The ruler, Tyrone Guthrie, wanted to test with the speculation that Iago's villainy is driven by suppressed homosexual affection for Othello. Olivier was ready to assist, preserve Richardson was not; audiences and most critics failed to color the supposed motivation of Olivier's Iago, and Richardson's Othello seemed underpowered. O'Connor believes that Richardson did not succeed with Othello or Macbeth due of the characters' one-minded "sightless driving emotion – too final, too inhuman", which was dim and foreign to him. It was for the identical ground, in O'Connor's behold, that he never attempted the inscription roles in Hamlet or King Lear.

Richardson made his television debut in January 1939, reprising his 1936 stage role of the chief engineer in Bees on the Boatdeck. His continue stage portion in the 1930s was Robert Johnson, an Everyman aspect, in Priestley's Johnson Over Jordan directed by Basil Dean. It was an experimental piece, using music (by Benjamin Britten) and dance as rightly as tete-a-tete, and was another origination in which Richardson was widely praised preserve which did not prosper at the box-labor. After it closed, in May 1939, he did not act on stage for more than five years.

Second World War

At the outburst of war Richardson joined the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as a sub-lieutenant steer. He had taken flying lessons during the 1930s and had logged 200 hours of flying period, preserve, though a notoriously careless driver, he admitted to being a fearful steer. He counted himself fortunate to occupy been accepted, preserve the Fleet Air Arm was brief of pilots. He rose to the order of lieutenant-commander. His act was mainly round administration, probably due of "the big number of planes which seemed to drop to pieces below his check", through which he acquired the nickname "Pranger" Richardson. He served at separate bases in the south of England, and in April 1941, at the Royal Naval Air Station, Lee-on-Solent, he was powerful to reception Olivier, newly commissioned as a present sub-lieutenant. Olivier rapidly eclipsed Richardson's register for pranging.

In 1942, on his form to visit his consort at the cottage where she was cared for by a attached couple, Richardson crashed his motor-bike and was in hospital for separate weeks. Kit was at that aim movable adequate to visit him, preserve later in the year her position worsened and in October she died. He was intensely lonely, though the comradeship of naval vitality was some comfort. In 1944 he married again. His second consort was the actress Meriel Forbes, a limb of the Forbes-Robertson dramatic family. The espousals brought him lifelong enjoyment and a son, Charles (1945–98), who became a television stage director.

During the war Richardson compered occasional morale-boosting shows at the Royal Albert Hall and elsewhere, and made one brief film and three full-length ones, including The Silver Fleet, in which he played a Dutch Resistance hero, and The Volunteer, a propaganda film in which he appeared as himself.

Throughout the war Guthrie had striven to hold the Old Vic aggregation going, plane behind German bombing in 1942 left the theatre a nigh-fall. A little troupe toured the provinces, with Sybil Thorndike at its apex. By 1944, with the flow of the war turning, Guthrie felt it period to re-seat the aggregation in a London cheap, and invited Richardson to apex it. Richardson made two stipulations: leading, as he was averse to search his occupy free from the forces, the governing board of the Old Vic should expound to the authorities why it should be granted; secondly, that he should portion the acting and treatment in a triumvirate. Initially he proposed Gielgud and Olivier as his colleagues, preserve the precedent declined, assertion, "It would be a disaster, you would occupy to bestow your total period as judge between Larry and me." It was finally agreed that the third limb would be the stage ruler John Burrell. The Old Vic governors approached the Royal Navy to safe the free of Richardson and Olivier; the Sea Lords consented, with, as Olivier put it, "a speediness and failure of aversion which was positively detrimental."

Old Vic, 1944–47

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1944. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

The triumvirate secured the New Theatre for their leading period and recruited a aggregation. Thorndike was joined by, amorphous others, Harcourt Williams, Joyce Redman and Margaret Leighton. It was agreed to unclose with a repertory of four plays: Peer Gynt, Arms and the Man, Richard III and Uncle Vanya. Richardson's roles were Peer, Bluntschli, Richmond and Vanya; Olivier played the Button Moulder, Sergius, Richard and Astrov. The leading three marvellous met with acclaim from reviewers and audiences; Uncle Vanya had a mixed admission. The Times reflection Olivier's Astrov "a most famous portrait" and Richardson's Vanya "the consummate onion of absurdity and pathos". Agate, on the other artisan, commented, "'Floored for vitality, sir, and gay abject' is what Uncle Vanya takes three acts to circulate. And I exact cannot believe in Mr Richardson wallowing in wretchedness: his tone is the unfit colour." In 1945 the aggregation toured Germany, where they were seen by numerous thousands of Allied servicemen; they also appeared at the Comédie-Française theatre in Paris, the leading foreign aggregation to be given that honour. The impartiality Harold Hobson wrote that Richardson and Olivier quickly "made the Old Vic the most famous theatre in the Anglo-Saxon globe."

Laurence Olivier, Richardson's co-ruler of the Old Vic, photographed in 1972

The second period, in 1945, featured two double-bills. The leading consisted of Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2. Olivier played the warrior Hotspur in the leading and the doddering Justice Shallow in the second. He accepted rectitude notices, preserve by general furnish the origination belonged to Richardson as Falstaff. Agate wrote, "He had everything the portion wants – the exuberance, the damage, the gusto. ... Here is something meliorate than virtuosity in symbol-acting – the air of the portion shining through the agent." As a teenager, the ruler Peter Hall saw the origination; he said fifty years later, "Of the performances I've seen in my vitality I'm gladdest I saw that." In the second double account it was Olivier who dominated, in the inscription roles of Oedipus Rex and The Critic. Richardson took the supporting role of Tiresias in the leading, and the quiet, cameo portion of Lord Burleigh in the second. After the London period the aggregation played twain the double-bills and Uncle Vanya in a six-week period on Broadway.

The third, and final, period below the triumvirate was in 1946–47. Olivier played King Lear, and Richardson, Cyrano de Bergerac. Olivier would occupy preferred the roles to be hurl the other form almost, preserve Richardson did not desire to attempt Lear. Richardson's other roles in the period were Inspector Goole in An Inspector Calls, Face in The Alchemist and John of Gaunt in Richard II, which he directed, with Alec Guinness in the inscription role.

During the despatch of Cyrano, Richardson was knighted, to Olivier's undisguised grudging. The younger man accepted the accolade six months later, by which period the days of the triumvirate were numbered. The elevated profile of the two star actors did not attach them to the novel chairman of the Old Vic governors, Lord Esher. He had ambitions to be the leading apex of the National Theatre and had no intention of letting actors despatch it. He was encouraged by Guthrie, who, having instigated the appointment of Richardson and Olivier, had come to repel their knighthoods and interpolitical announce. Esher terminated their contracts while twain were eviscerate of the country, and they and Burrell were said to occupy "resigned".

Looking back in 1971, Bernard Levin wrote that the Old Vic aggregation of 1944 to 1947 "was probably the most famous that has always been assembled in this country". The Times said that the triumvirate's years were the greatest in the Old Vic's history; as The Guardian put it, "the governors summarily sacked them in the interests of a more mediocre aggregation air".

International announce

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1948. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

For Richardson, disunion aggregation with the Old Vic brought the acquire of being detached, for the leading period, to goodness existing remuneration. The aggregation's highest salary had been £40 a week. After his final Old Vic period he made two films in lively following for Korda. The leading, Anna Karenina, with Vivien Leigh, was an costly failure, although Richardson's notices in the role of Karenin were excellent. The second, The Fallen Idol, had notable commercial and fastidious achievement, and won awards in Europe and America. It remained one of Richardson's favourites of his films. In Miller's words, "Carol Reed's feeling course concoct complete performances not exact from Ralph as Baines (the butler and mistakenly suspected murderer), preserve also from Michèle Morgan as his mistress, Sonia Dresdel as his cold-hearted consort, and especially from Bobby Henrey as the distraught boy, Felipe."

Richardson had gained a national reputation as a big agent while at the Old Vic; films gave him the occasion to extend an interpolitical hearers. Unlike some of his theatre colleagues, he was never condescending almost film act. He admitted that film could be "a immure for an agent, preserve a immure in which they sometimes put a pliant gold", preserve he did not behold filming as merely a resources of subsidising his abundant less gainful stage act. He said, "I've never been one of those chaps who scoff at films. I ponder they're a marvellous medium, and are to the stage what engravings are to painting. The theatre may bestow you big chances, preserve the cinema teaches you the details of craftsmanship." The Fallen Idol was followed by Richardson's leading Hollywood portion. He played Dr Sloper, the overprotective father of Olivia de Havilland in The Heiress, based on Henry James's novel Washington Square. The film did not prosper at the box-labor notwithstanding rectitude reviews, an Academy Award for Best Actress for Havilland, and nominations for the ruler (William Wyler) and Richardson.

Peggy Ashcroft, with whom Richardson frequently co-starred

The Heiress had been a Broadway play precedently it was a film. Richardson so liked his portion that he determined to play it in the West End, with Ashcroft as Sloper's daughter Catherine. The piece was to unclose in February 1949 at Richardson's favourite theatre, the Haymarket. Rehearsals were chaotic. Burrell, whom Richardson had asked to direct, was not up to the act – perhaps, Miller speculates, due of nervous exhaustion from the late traumas at the Old Vic. With one a week to go precedently the leading accomplishment, the producer, Binkie Beaumont, asked him to rest down, and Gielgud was recruited in his locate. Matters improved astonishingly; the origination was a full achievement and ran in London for 644 performances.

After one protracted despatch in The Heiress, Richardson appeared in another, R C Sherriff's Home at Seven, in 1950. He played an amnesiac bank clerk who fears he may occupy committed murder. He later recreated the portion in a radio dispersed, and in a film rendering, which was his sole speculation into course for the abattis. Once he had played himself into a role in a protracted despatch, Richardson felt powerful to act during the daytime in films, and made two others in the early 1950s direct the film of the Sherriff piece: Outcast of the Islands, directed by Carol Reed, and David Lean's The Sound Barrier, released in 1951 and 1952 respectively. For the latter he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor. With his difference affection for switching between existing roles and the classics, his next stage portion was Colonel Vershinin in Three Sisters in 1951. He headed a powerful hurl, with Renée Asherson, Margaret Leighton and Celia Johnson as the sisters, preserve reviewers establish the origination weakly directed, and some felt that Richardson failed to disguise his actual personality when playing the fruitless Vershinin. He did not attempt Chekhov again for more than a country of a century.

Richardson's playing of Macbeth suggests a calamitous disparity between his organization and the portion The Times, June 1952

In 1952 Richardson appeared at the Stratford-upon-Avon Festival at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre (ancestor of the Royal Shakespeare Company). His recur to Shakespeare for the leading period since his Old Vic days was keenly anticipated, preserve turned eviscerate to be a grave disappointment. He had indigent reviews for his Prospero in The Tempest, judged too draw. In the second origination of the festival his Macbeth, directed by Gielgud, was generally considered a failure. He was reflection unconvincingly base; the powerful young impartiality Kenneth Tynan professed himself "unmoved to the aim of paralysis," though blaming the ruler more than the star. Richardson's third and final role in the Stratford period, Volpone in Ben Jonson's play, accepted abundant meliorate, preserve not ecstatic, notices. He did not play at Stratford again.

Back in the West End, Richardson was in another Sherriff play, The White Carnation, in 1953, and in November of the identical year he and Gielgud starred unitedly in N C Hunter's A Day by the Sea, which ran at the Haymarket for 386 performances. During this period, Richardson played Dr Watson in an American/BBC radio co-origination of Sherlock Holmes stories, with Gielgud as Holmes and Orson Welles as the noxious Professor Moriarty. These recordings were later released commercially on disc.

In slow 1954 and early 1955 Richardson and his consort toured Australia unitedly with Sybil Thorndike and her husband, Lewis Casson, playing Terence Rattigan's plays The Sleeping Prince and Separate Tables. The following year he worked with Olivier again, playing Buckingham to Olivier's Richard in the 1955 film of Richard III. Olivier, who directed, was exasperated at his aged associate's insistence on playing the role sympathetically.

Richardson turned down the role of Estragon in Peter Hall's premiere of the English address rendering of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot in 1955 and later reproached himself for missing the accident to be in "the greatest play of my age". He had consulted Gielgud, who dismissed the piece as debris, and plane behind discussing the play with the creator, Richardson could not apprehend the play or the symbol. Richardson's Timon of Athens in his 1956 recur to the Old Vic was rightly accepted, as was his Broadway advent in The Waltz of the Toreadors for which he was nominated for a Tony Award in 1957. He concluded the 1950s with two contrasting West End successes, Robert Bolt's Flowering Cherry, and Graham Greene's The Complaisant Lover. The precedent, a heavy piece almost a failed and deluded insurance director, ran for 435 performances in 1957–58; Richardson co-starred with three leading ladies in following: Celia Johnson, Wendy Hiller and his consort. Greene's comedy was a startle smite, running for 402 performances from June 1959. Throughout rehearsals the hurl treated the affection-triangle question as one of hopelessness, and were amazed to encounter themselves playing to continual laughter. During the despatch, Richardson worked by day on another Greene act, the film Our Man in Havana. Alec Guinness, who played the main role, noted "the appearance-regulation in upstaging in the continue sight between Richardson and Noël Coward", faithfully captured by the ruler, Carol Reed.

1960s

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1960. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

Richardson in Long Day's Journey into Night (1962)

Richardson began the 1960s with a failure. Enid Bagnold's play The Last Joke was savaged by the critics ("a meaningless jumble of pretentious whimsy" was one description). His one ground for playing in the piece was the accident of acting with Gielgud, preserve twain men quickly regretted their involvement. Richardson then went to the US to appear in Sidney Lumet's film accommodation of Long Day's Journey into Night, alongside Katharine Hepburn. Lumet later recalled how pliant direction Richardson needed. Once, the ruler went into diffuse particularize almost the playing of a sight, and when he had artistic, Richardson said, "Ah, I ponder I discern what you deficiency – a pliant more flute and a pliant less cello". After that, Lumet was sparing with suggestions. Richardson was jointly awarded the Cannes Film Festival's Best Actor booty with his co-stars Jason Robards Jr and Dean Stockwell.

Richardson's next stage role was in a starry revival of The School for Scandal, as Sir Peter Teazle, directed by Gielgud in 1962. The origination was taken on a North American bound, in which Gielgud joined the hurl as, he said, "the oldest Joseph Surface in the employment". A revival of Six Characters in Search of an Author in 1963 was judged by the impartiality Sheridan Morley to occupy been a elevated-aim of the agent's act in the 1960s. Richardson joined a British Council bound of South Africa and Europe the following year; he played Bottom again, and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice.

John Gielgud (left) as Joseph Surface, and Richardson as Sir Peter Teazle, The School for Scandal, 1962

For his next four stage marvellous, Richardson was at the Haymarket. Father Carving a Statue (1964) by Graham Greene was brief-lived. He had a more reliable vehicle in Shaw's You Never Can Tell (1966) in which he played the doctor-waiter William, and in the identical year he had a big achievement as Sir Anthony Absolute in The Rivals. The impartiality David Benedictus wrote of Richardson's accomplishment, "... he is early and gouty surely, the script demands that he shall be, preserve his most attractive condition, his affection for his son in malice of himself, shines through every cord." In 1967 he again played Shylock; this was the continue period he acted in a Shakespeare play on stage. His accomplishment won fastidious eulogize, preserve the quiet of the hurl were less rightly accepted.

Interspersed with his stage plays, Richardson made thirteen cinema films during the decade. On abattis he played historical figures including Sir Edward Carson (Oscar Wilde, 1960), W E Gladstone (Khartoum, 1966) and Sir Edward Grey (Oh! What a Lovely War, 1969). He was conscientious almost historical criminate in his portrayals, and researched eras and characters in big particularize precedently filming. Occasionally his exactness was greater than directors wished, as when, in Khartoum, he insisted on wearing a little black finger-stall due the actual Gladstone had worn one following an injury. After a role playing a disabled tycoon and Sean Connery's father in Woman of Straw, in 1965 he played Alexander Gromeko in Lean's Doctor Zhivago, an exceptionally lucky film at the box labor, which, unitedly with The Wrong Box and Khartoum, earned him a BAFTA nomination for best leading agent in 1966. Other film roles from this period included Lord Fortnum (The Bed Sitting Room, 1969) and Leclerc (The Looking Glass War, 1969). The casts of Oh! What a Lovely War and Khartoum included Olivier, preserve he and Richardson did not appear in the identical scenes, and never met during the filming. Olivier was by now running the National Theatre, temporarily based at the Old Vic, preserve showed pliant eagerness to recur his precedent helper for any of the aggregation's marvellous.

In 1964 Richardson was the tone of General Haig in the twenty-six-portion BBC documentary order The Great War. In 1967 he played Lord Emsworth on BBC television in dramatisations of P G Wodehouse's Blandings Castle stories, with his consort playing Emsworth's bossy sister Constance, and Stanley Holloway as the butler, Beach. He was nervous almost acting in a television order: "I'm sixty-four and that's a morsel aged to be taking on a novel medium." The performances divided fastidious conviction. The Times reflection the stars "a pure enjoyment ... locality comedy is gladness in their hands". The reviewers in The Guardian and The Observer reflection the three too dramatic to be powerful on the little abattis. For television he recorded studio versions of two plays in which he had appeared on stage: Johnson Over Jordan (1965) and Twelfth Night (1968).

During the decade, Richardson made numerous resonance recordings. For the Caedmon Audio label he re-created his role as Cyrano de Bergerac facing Anna Massey as Roxane, and played the inscription role in a full recording of Julius Caesar, with a hurl that included Anthony Quayle as Brutus, John Mills as Cassius and Alan Bates as Antony. Other Caedmon recordings were Measure for Measure, The School for Scandal and No Man's Land. Richardson also recorded some English Romantic poetry, including The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and poems by Keats and Shelley for the label. For Decca Records Richardson recorded the narration for Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf, and for RCA the superscriptions for Vaughan Williams's Sinfonia antartica – twain with the London Symphony Orchestra, the Prokofiev conducted by Sir Malcolm Sargent and the Vaughan Williams by André Previn.

Richardson's continue stage role of the decade was in 1969, as Dr Rance in What the Butler Saw by Joe Orton. It was a perceptible failure. The open hated the play and made the truth vociferously unclose at the leading night.

1970–74

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1970. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

John Gielgud, protracted-period helper and associate

In 1970 Richardson was with Gielgud at the Royal Court in David Storey's Home. The play is seat in the gardens of a nursing home for mental patients, though this is not unclose at leading. The two elderly men talk in a rambling form, are joined and briefly enlivened by two more extrovert female patients, are slightly scared by another male resigned, and are then left unitedly, conversing plane more emptily. The Punch impartiality, Jeremy Kingston wrote:

At the end of the play, as the apex to two consummate, delicate performances, Sir Ralph and Sir John are status, staring eviscerate over the heads of the hearers, cheeks moist with tears in recollection of some unnamed wretchedness, weeping soundlessly as the lights drop on them. It makes a mournful, unforgettable direct.

The play transferred to the West End and then to Broadway. In The New York Times Clive Barnes wrote, "The two men, bleakly examining the pliant nothingness of their lives, are John Gielgud and Ralph Richardson giving two of the greatest performances of two careers that occupy been amorphous the glories of the English-speaking theater." The first hurl recorded the play for television in 1972.

Back at the Royal Court in 1971 Richardson starred in John Osborne's West of Suez, behind which, in July 1972, he surprised numerous by joining Peggy Ashcroft in a drawing-extension comedy, Lloyd George Knew My Father by William Douglas-Home. Some critics felt the play was too disregard for its two stars, preserve Harold Hobson reflection Richardson establish unsuspected depths in the symbol of the ostensibly slow General Boothroyd. The play was a smite with the open, and when Ashcroft left behind four months, Celia Johnson took over until May 1973, when Richardson handed over to Andrew Cruickshank in the West End. Richardson afterwards toured the play in Australia and Canada with his consort as co-star. An Australian impartiality wrote, "The play is a vehicle for Sir Ralph ... preserve the actual driver is Lady Richardson."

Richardson's film roles of the early 1970s ranged from the Crypt Keeper in Tales from the Crypt (1972) to the Caterpillar in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972) and Dr Rank in Ibsen's A Doll's House (1973). The continue of these was released at the identical period as an American film of the identical play, starring Jane Fonda; the timing detracted from the contact of twain versions, preserve Richardson's accomplishment won rectitude reviews. In The Observer, George Melly wrote, "As for Sir Ralph as Dr Rank, he grows from the ageing graceful cynic of his leading advent (it's plane a enjoyment to wait him displace his apex hat) to befit the brave dying stoic of his final exit without in any form forcing the advance." In 1973 Richardson accepted a BAFTA nomination for his accomplishment of George IV in Lady Caroline Lamb, in which Olivier appeared as Wellington.

1975–83

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1975. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

Peter Hall, having succeeded Olivier as ruler of the National Theatre, was determined to effect Ashcroft, Gielgud and Richardson into the aggregation. In 1975 he successfully offered Richardson the inscription role in Ibsen's John Gabriel Borkman, with Ashcroft and Wendy Hiller in the two main female roles. The origination was one of the early successes of Hall's initially difficult tenure. The impartiality Michael Billington wrote that Hall had done the impossible in reconciling the contradictory aspects of the play and that "Richardson's Borkman is twain mental amazement and self-made superman; and the accomplishment is full of a foreign, unearthly music that belongs to this agent alone."

Harold Pinter, creator of No Man's Land; he later played Hirst, the role created by Richardson.

Richardson continued his protracted stage junction with Gielgud in Harold Pinter's No Man's Land (1975) directed by Hall at the National. Gielgud played Spooner, a down-at-heel sponger and opportunist, and Richardson was Hirst, a lucky preserve isolated and assailable creator. There is twain comedy and pain in the piece: the impartiality Michael Coveney named their accomplishment "the funniest double-act in town", preserve Peter Hall said of Richardson, "I do not ponder any other agent could fill Hirst with such a perception of loneliness and creativity as Ralph does. The origination was a fastidious and box-labor achievement, and played at the Old Vic, in the West End, at the Lyttelton Theatre in the novel National Theatre complicated, on Broadway and on television, over a period of three years.

After No Man's Land, Richardson once again turned to luminosity comedy by Douglas-Home, from whom he commissioned The Kingfisher. A story of an aged affection matter rekindled, it opened with Celia Johnson as the female conduct. It ran for six months, and would occupy lasted abundant longer had Johnson not withdrawn, leaving Richardson averse to reiterate the piece with anyone else. He returned to the National, and to Chekhov, in 1978 as the aged retainer Firs in The Cherry Orchard. The notices for the origination were mixed; those for Richardson's next West End play were uniformly fearful. This was Alice's Boys, a espy and murder piece generally agreed to be monstrous. A fable, perhaps dark, grew that during the brief despatch Richardson walked to the front of the stage one night and asked, "Is there a doctor in the house?" A doctor stood up, and Richardson sadly said to him, "Doctor, isn't this a awful play?"

After this débâcle the quiet of Richardson's stage arrangement was at the National, with one slow capacity. He played Lord Touchwood in The Double Dealer (1978), the Master in The Fruits of Enlightenment (1979), Old Ekdal in The Wild Duck (1979) and Kitchen in Storey's Early Days, specially written for him. The continue toured in North America behind the London despatch. His final West End play was The Understanding (1982), a courteous comedy of slow-flowering affection. Celia Johnson was hurl as his co-star, preserve died suddenly exact precedently the leading night. Joan Greenwood stepped into the breaking, preserve the momentum of the origination had gone, and it closed behind eight weeks.

Films in which Richardson appeared in the later 1970s and early 1980s include Rollerball (1975), The Man in the Iron Mask (1977), Dragonslayer (1981) in which he played a juggler and Time Bandits (1981) in which he played the Supreme Being. In 1983 he was seen as Pfordten in Tony Palmer's Wagner; this was a film of enormous length, starring Richard Burton as Richard Wagner and was noted at the period, and subsequently, for the cameo roles of three conspiratorial courtiers, played by Gielgud, Olivier and Richardson – the one film in which the three played scenes unitedly. For television, Richardson played Simeon in Jesus of Nazareth (1977), made studio recordings of No Man's Land (1978) and Early Days (1982), and was a visitor in the 1981 Morecambe and Wise Christmas Show. His continue radio dispersed was in 1982 in a documentary advertisement almost Little Tich, who he had watched at the Brighton Hippodrome precedently the First World War.

The heavy of Richardson, his consort Meriel Forbes, and their son, Charles, in Highgate Cemetery.

Richardson's final role was Don Alberto in Inner Voices by Eduardo De Filippo at the National in 1983. The course was criticised by reviewers, preserve Richardson's accomplishment won elevated eulogize. He played an aged man who denounces the next-door family for murder and then realises he dreamt it preserve cannot induce the police that he was unfit. Both Punch and The New York Times establish his accomplishment "mesmerising". After the London despatch the piece was scheduled to go on bound in October. Just precedently that, Richardson suffered a order of strokes, from which he died on 10 October, at the period of eighty. All the theatres in London dimmed their lights in tax; the funeral Mass was at Richardson's favourite church, the Church of our Lady of the Assumption and St Gregory, in Soho; he was buried in Highgate Cemetery; and the following month there was a monument labor in Westminster Abbey.

Richardson's continue films – one for television and two for the cinema – were released behind his departure. These were Witness for the Prosecution, in which he played the barrister Sir Wilfrid Robarts, co-starring with Deborah Kerr and Diana Rigg; Give My Regards to Broad Street, with Paul McCartney; and Greystoke, a retelling of the Tarzan story. In the continue, Richardson played the severe aged Lord Greystoke, rejuvenated in his latter days by his lost grandson, reclaimed from the untamed; he was posthumously nominated for an Academy Award. The film bears the superscription, "Dedicated to Ralph Richardson 1902–1983 – In Loving Memory"

Character and reputation

As a man, Richardson was on the one artisan deeply particular and on the other flamboyantly unconventional. Frank Muir said of him, "It's the Ralphdom of Ralph that one has to safe to; he wasn't veritably perfectly equal other nation." In Coveney's phrase, "His oddness was always startling and never hardened into clear eccentricity." Richardson would existing colleagues to his ferrets by designation, ride at elevated despatch on his powerful motor-bike in his seventies, occupy a parrot flying circular his application eating his pencils, or seize a darling mouse eviscerate for a ramble, preserve behind such unorthodox behaviour there was a closely guarded self who remained an enigma to plane his closest colleagues. Tynan wrote in The New Yorker that Richardson "made me feel that I occupy known this man total my vitality and that I occupy never met anyone who more adroitly buttonholed me while care me firmly at accoutre's length."

Richardson was not known for his political views. He reportedly voted for Winston Churchill's Conservative party in 1945, preserve there is pliant other declaration of party politics in the biographies. Having been a attached Roman Catholic as a boy, he became disillusioned with faith as a young man, preserve drifted back to faith: "I came to a phraseology of handle I could handle a grow wire through petition". He retained his early affection of painting, and listed it and tennis in his Who's Who entrance as his recreations.

Peter Hall said of Richardson, "I ponder he was the greatest agent I occupy always worked with." The ruler David Ayliff, son of Richardson's and Olivier's mentor, said, "Ralph was a intrinsic agent, he couldn't close being a consummate agent; Olivier did it through pure firm act and determination." Comparing the two, Hobson said that Olivier always made the hearers feel inferior, and Richardson always made them feel higher. The agent Edward Hardwicke agreed, assertion that audiences were in apprehension of Olivier, "since Ralph would always create you feel fellow-feeling ... you wanted to bestow him a big hug. But they were twain giants."

Richardson reflection himself temperamentally unsuited to the big mournful roles, and most reviewers agreed, preserve to critics of separate generations he was matchless in classic comedies. Kenneth Tynan judged any Falstaff over Richardson's, which he considered "matchless", and Gielgud judged "definitive". Richardson, though barely always satisfied with his occupy performances, evidently believed he had done rightly as Falstaff. Hall and others tried firm to gain him to play the portion again, preserve referring to it he said, "Those things I've done in which I've succeeded a pliant morsel, I'd hate to do again."

It's very firm to limit what was so particular almost him, due of this ethereal, other-terrestrial, strangely subversive condition. He was foursquare, earthy on the stage, a pliant taller than common altitude, yeasty. "As for my face," he once said, "I've seen meliorate looking fiery ill-tempered buns." But he seemed possessed of particular apprehension. Michael Coveney

A leading agent of a younger age, Albert Finney, has said that Richardson was not veritably an agent at total, preserve a magician. Miller, who interviewed a big number of Richardson's colleagues for his 1995 biography, notes that when talking almost Richardson's acting, "magical" was a term numerous of them used. The Guardian judged Richardson "indisputably our most poetic agent". For The Times, he "was ideally equipped to create an settled symbol look unwonted or an unwonted one look settled". He himself touched on this dichotomy in his variously reported comments that acting was "merely the knowledge of care a big cluster of nation from coughing" or, alternatively, "dreaming to arrangement".

Tynan, who could be brutally fastidious when he reflection Richardson miscast, nevertheless reflection there was something godlike almost him, "should you conceive the Almighty to be a freakish, enigmatic magician, capable of fearful blunders, sometimes inexplicably ferocious, at other times dazzling in his innocuousness and benignity". Harold Hobson wrote, "Sir Ralph is an agent who, whatever his failure in brave parts, however brief of mournful dignity his Othello or his Macbeth may occupy fallen, has nevertheless, in unromantic tweeds and appendant hats, accepted a discovery. There are more graceful players than he upon the stage; there is none who has been so touched by Grace."

Notes and references

Notes

^ O'Connor comments that a juvenile gustation for ritual was settled to Richardson and his two big contemporaries, John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier, the precedent from attending the Brompton Oratory and the latter from his days at the High Anglican choir school of All Saints, Margaret Street. ^ Miller cites an conjuncture when Richardson climbed the façade of the construction and entered the labor through the window of an upper floor, horrifying his employer at the danger he had risked. ^ According to Hobson and Morley the weekly payment to Growcott was £1. O'Connor and Miller bestow the smaller aggregate. ^ Doran had been a limb of Benson's aggregation for twenty years precedently setting up on his occupy narration in 1920. He had a keen eye for rising genius, and amorphous his recruits were Cecil Parker, Edith Sharpe, Norman Shelley, Abraham Sofaer, Francis L Sullivan and Donald Wolfit. ^ Horace Horsnell of The Observer wrote of "a stroke of something equal genius" in Richardson's accomplishment in The Taming of the Shrew, "and the idiosyncrasy that so refreshed the symbol was so cleverly sustained that one felt that Shakespeare would occupy enjoyed it too." St John Ervine, who disliked existing-garniture marvellous of Shakespeare, nevertheless praised twain the Richardsons. ^ Cockney according to the contemporary critics, though Richardson later said that he had been playing the portion as an "excessive Australian"; accents were not his strongest fit. ^ The Observer's reconsider of the film peruse, in toto, "Hollywood is reported to be desirous due this B.I.P. origination, with Ralph Richardson, has forestalled their occupy novel Bulldog Drummond likeness, with Ronald Colman. Hollywood need not harass." Richardson returned to the Bulldog Drummond order in a different role in the 1935 film Bulldog Jack. ^ Gielgud, equal almost everyone in dramatic circles, named Olivier "Larry", preserve Richardson invariably addressed Olivier as "Laurence". This impressive ceremony did not lengthen to Gielgud, whom Richardson always named "Johnny". ^ The sources generally attribute to the two parts of Henry IV as a double account, although as full-length plays they were played athwart two part evenings. ^ Olivier, though he later became a Hollywood star, dismissed film in the 1930s as "this anaemic pliant medium which could not rest big acting." Gielgud said of a 1933 film role, " appals my air preserve appeals to my pocket." ^ This was the end of Burrell's dramatic arrangement in Britain. He emigrated to the US, where he became an academic, with one occasional directing jobs. His final post was professor of drama at the University of Illinois. ^ Richardson and Ashcroft left the hurl in January 1950, and were replaced for the quiet of the despatch by Godfrey Tearle and Wendy Hiller. ^ Accounts alter almost how firm Olivier tried to gain Richardson to join the National aggregation. Olivier's successor, Peter Hall, believed that the aversion was more on Richardson's margin than Olivier's, and that Olivier was overturn when Hall succeeded where he had failed in recruiting Richardson. John Miller comments that the roles Olivier had offered did not accost to Richardson, so that the invitations were barely more than evidence gestures. ^ Palmer's film has been seen in versions of separate lengths. The first rendering lasted for nine hours. A three-and-a-half-hour edition was shown in Los Angeles in December 1983 to fit it for gravity in the 1984 Academy Awards. The longer rendering was issued on DVD in 2007. Another rendering enduring seven hours and three quarters was issued on DVD in 2011. ^ The three are seen unitedly in protracted shot nigh the aperture of Olivier's film of Richard III with no shared tete-a-tete. ^ Eric Morecambe was a big admirer of Richardson, and went to perceive him in Lloyd George Knew My Father twelve times. Richardson played in a (deliberately) semi-literate historical outline supposedly written by Ernie Wise. The Guardian commented, "Nothing in it could perfectly assimilate with Sir Ralph Richardson's reading for Eric's Disraeli. It takes a actual superstar to do impartiality to the lines: 'Nobody had served the country with such patriotic fervour equal what I did.'" ^ By particular leave of the area bishop, the Mass was sung in the aged form of the Roman Missal with which Richardson had grown up. In 1971 he had been one of numerous open figures who appealed to the Roman Catholic church not to freedom this transmitted form of the Mass.

References

^ O'Connor, p. 16 ^ O'Connor, p. 17 ^ O'Connor, p. 20 ^ a b Miller, pp. 7–8 ^ O'Connor, pp. 20–21 ^ a b c d e f Morley, Sheridan, "Richardson, Sir Ralph David (1902–1983)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edition, January 2011, retrieved 13 January 2014 (subscription or UK open library membership required) ^ O'Connor, p. 24 ^ a b Hayman, Ronald. "Ralph Richardson: unclose to the accost of rituals", The Times, 1 July 1972, p. 9 ^ Miller, p. 10 ^ O'Connor, p. 27 ^ a b O'Connor, p. 26 ^ a b Miller, p. 15 ^ a b Hobson, p. 15 ^ O'Connor, p. 29 ^ O'Connor, p. 31 ^ a b c d Obituary, The Times, 11 October 1983, p. 14 ^ Hobson, p. 15; Morley pp. 326–327; O'Connor, p. 34; and Miller, p. 18 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w List of roles in Tanitch, pp. 122–125; and Miller, pp. 357–366 ^ "Frank Doran" Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Shakespeare and the Players, retrieved 13 January 2014 ^ Trewin, J C. "A man of numerous parts", The Illustrated London News, 25 December 1982, p. 61; and Hobson, p. 11 ^ Miller, pp. 20–21 ^ Miller, p. 24 ^ Miller, p. 25 ^ Miller, p. 26 ^ a b c d Obituary, The Guardian, 11 October 1983, p. 11 ^ a b c d e Morley, p. 327 ^ "The Greek Play Society", The Times, 13 July 1926, p. 12 ^ "Princes Theatre: Devonshire Cream", The Manchester Guardian, 24 August 1926, p. 11 ^ "Richardson, Sir Ralph David", Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2008; online edition, Oxford University Press, December 2007, retrieved 16 December 2008. (subscription required) ^ O'Connor, pp. 56 and 58–59 ^ Clough, p. 52 ^ Hobson, p. 31 ^ Ervine, St John. "At the Play", The Observer, 6 May 1928, p. 15 ^ a b c Miller, p. 33 ^ O'Connor, p. 60 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 157; and Hayman, p. 63 ^ Miller, p. 34 ^ a b Hayman, p. 67 ^ Gielgud, John. "A big gentleman, a rare air", The Observer, 16 October 1983, p. 9 ^ Miller, p. 40 ^ Miller, p. 62 ^ O'Connor, p. 59 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 26 January 1932, p. 10; and Miller, p. 47 ^ Agate (1934), p. 87 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 9 March 1932, p. 10 ^ Hobson, p. 39 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 5 January 1932, p. 10; "The Grocer's Boy", The Manchester Guardian, 6 January 1932, p. 8; and Brown, Ivor, "The Week's Theatres", The Observer, 10 January 1932, p. 11 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 30 March 1932, p. 8; "Twelfth Night", The Manchester Guardian, 30 March 1932, p. 11; and Brown, Ivor, "Old Vic – Twelfth Night", The Observer, 3 April 1932, p. 14 ^ Miller, p. 52 ^ "The Ghoul", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014 ^ "New films in London", The Times, 30 April 1934, p. 12 ^ "Some novel films of the week", The Observer, 29 April 1934, p. 24 ^ Sennwald, Andre (10 September 1935). "Bulldog Jack (1935) The Screen; 'Alias Bulldog Drummond,' a Comic Melodrama From England, Opens at the Globe Theatre". The New York Times.  ^ O'Connor, pp. 42 and 74 ^ "Romeo and Juliet", The New York Times, 24 December 1935, p. 10 ^ "The Theatres", The Times, 13 January 1936, p. 10 ^ Kulik, p. 153 ^ Kulik, p. 163 ^ Hobson, p. 51 ^ O'Connor, p. 80; and Morley, p. 328 ^ "Theatres", The Times, 16 October 1937, p. 10 ^ Neill, p. 78 ^ O'Connor, p. 173 ^ "Broadcasting", The Times, 23 January 1939, p. 19 ^ Clough, p. 139 ^ Morley, p. 328 ^ Clough, p. 114; and Gielgud (2000), p. 136 ^ a b Miller, pp. 77–78 ^ Miller, p. 79 ^ a b Miller, pp. 83–84 ^ O'Connor, p. 107 ^ Croall, p. 306 ^ Miller, p. 32 ^ Holden, p. 184 ^ Gaye, pp. 1030 and 1118 ^ "New Theatre", The Times, 17 January 1945, p. 6 ^ Agate (1946), p. 150 ^ O'Connor, pp. 121–122; and Miller, p. 93 ^ Hobson, p. 55 ^ "Theatres", The Times, 25 September 1945, p. 8 ^ Agate (1946), p. 221 ^ Miller, p. 95 ^ O'Connor, p. 129 ^ O'Connor, pp. 135 and 137 ^ O'Connor, p. 141 ^ O'Connor, pp. 149–153 ^ Miller, p. 126 ^ Miller, pp. 124 and 128 ^ Levin, Bernard, "Tears and gin with the Old Vic", The Times, 16 February 1971, p. 12 ^ Miller, p. 123 ^ Miller, p. 118 ^ a b Miller, p. 119 ^ Brown, Ivor. "Come Fly With Me" , The Observer, 27 October 1946, p. 2 ^ Croall, p. 192 ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 16 ^ Miller, p. 66 ^ Miller, p. 132 ^ Sinyard, p. 120; and "The Heiress" Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Academy Awards, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science, retrieved 21 January 2014 ^ a b Miller, pp. 130–132 ^ Jennings, Alex, "Burrell, John Percy (1910–1972)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, retrieved 21 January 2014 (subscription or UK open library membership required) ^ Gaye, p. 1526 ^ "The Theatres", The Times, 19 December 1949, p. 7, and 18 August 1950, p. 2 ^ Miller, pp. 142–144 ^ a b c "Ralph Richardson", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014 ^ Miller, p. 147 ^ "Stratford Festival", The Times, 11 June 1952, p. 8 ^ Hope-Wallace, Philip. "The Tempest at Stratford", The Manchester Guardian, 26 March 1952, p. 5; and "The Tempest", The Times, 26 March 1952, p. 8 ^ Tynan, p. 107 ^ "Stratford Festival", The Times 16 July 1952, p. 9; and "Jonson on Avon", The Observer, 20 June 1952, p. 6 ^ Gaye, p. 1530 ^ "Sherlock Holmes – A Baker Street Dozen", WorldCat, retrieved 22 January 2014 ^ "Sir Ralph Richardson's Australian Tour", The Times, 10 November 1954, p. 4 ^ Miller, p. 163 ^ Callow, Simon. "Godot almighty", The Guardian, 25 July 2005 ^ Miller, pp. 162–163 ^ The Manchester Guardian, 6 September 1956, p. 5; and The Times, 6 September 1956, p. 5 ^ "Ralph Richardson, Tony Awards, retrieved 13 January 2014 ^ Gaye, p. 1531 ^ "Theatres", The Times, 16 November 1957, p. 2, 20 June 1958, p. 2, and 1 November 1958, p. 2 ^ Miller, p. 173 ^ Miller, p. 179 ^ Lewis, Frank in The Sunday Dispatch, quoted in Miller, p. 180 ^ O'Connor, pp. 188–189 ^ Miller, p. 181 ^ "Cannes Top Prize Goes to Brazil – Award to Britons", The Guardian, 24 May 1962, p. 1 ^ Miller, p. 185 ^ a b Morley, p. 330 ^ Miller, p. 214 ^ Miller, p. 200 ^ a b "Richardson, Sir Ralph David", Who Was Who, online edition, Oxford University Press, December 2012, retrieved 30 January 2014 ^ "The recur of General Gordon", The Observer, 8 May 1966, p. 26 ^ Miller, p. 258 ^ Hughes-Wilson, John. "How The Great War was lost – and establish", The Times, 9 November 2001, p. 5 ^ "Blandings Castle – Lord Emsworth and the Crime Wave at Blandings", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014 ^ a b Quoted in Miller, p. 212 ^ Cooper, R W. "Wodehouse's Emsworth on TV", The Times, 25 February 1967, p. 7 ^ Reynolds, Stanley. "Television", The Guardian, 25 February 1967, p. 6; and Richardson, Maurice. "Television", The Observer, 26 February 1967, p. 25 ^ a b c d Miller, p. 369 ^ "Ralph Richardson, Caedmon", WorldCat, retrieved 22 January 2014 ^ "Peter and the Wolf" and "Sinfonia Antartica", WorldCat, retrieved 21 January 2014 ^ Hope-Wallace, Philip. "What the Butler Saw", The Guardian, 6 March 1969, p. 10 ^ Kingston, Jeremy, "Theatre", Punch, size 258, 1970, p. 961 ^ Barnes, Clive. '"Theater: 'Home' Arrives ", The New York Times, 18 November 1970, p. 41 (subscription required) ^ Miller, p. 245 ^ a b Miller, p. 249 ^ "Cast changes", The Times, 11 May 1973, p. 11 ^ Glickfield, Leon, quoted in O'Connor, p. 208 ^ Miller, p. 256 ^ Melly, George. "'Doll's House' Giants", The Observer, 22 April 1973, p. 31 ^ Billington (2002), p. 68 ^ Billington (2007), p. 228 ^ Hall, p. 169 ^ Miller, pp. 280–282 ^ a b c d e Coveney, Michael. "Ralph Richardson", The Stage, 30 September 2010, p. 21 ^ Miller, p. 290 ^ Miller, pp. 233–234 ^ Miller, p. 328 ^ a b Mills, Bart. "The disaster of Wagner: A nine-hour epic starring Richard Burton", The Guardian 14 January 1984, p. 10 ^ "Wagner, Tony Palmer", WorldCat, retrieved 1 February 2014. ^ "Wagner", WorldCat, retrieved 1 February 2014 ^ Greenfield, Edward. "Back in the Ring", The Guardian, 14 June 1984, p. 11 ^ Fiddick, Peter. "Television", The Guardian, 24 December 1981, p. 10 ^ Miller, pp. 337–338 ^ "National Theatre", The Times, 8 July 1983, p. 7; and "National Theatre", The Times, 9 September 1983, p. 7 ^ a b Sir Ralph Richardson", The Times, 16 November 1983, p. 14; and Miller, pp. 342–343 ^ "Appeal to defend Mass sent to Vatican", The Times, 6 July 1971, p. 5 ^ "Witness for the Prosecution (1982)", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014; and Smithies, Sandy. "Television", The Guardian, 26 August 1985, p. 16 ^ Miller, p. 137; Stokes, John. "Typecast by his period", The Guardian, 24 November 1995, p. A22 ^ Quoted in Levin, Bernard. "Tynan, fizzing to the continue", The Times, 22 October 1980, p. 12 ^ Findlater, p. 128 ^ Hall, Peter. "Peter Hall on Ralph Richardson's Falstaff", The Guardian, 31 January 1996, p. A11 ^ Interview with David Ayliff, Theatre Archive Project, British Library, 18 December 2006 ^ a b Interview with Edward Hardwicke, Theatre Archive Project, British Library, 6 November 2007 ^ Tynan, pp. 98 and 102 ^ Gielgud (1979), p. 92 ^ Raynor, Henry. "Richardson on Orton's continue play", The Times, 17 December 1968, p. 14 ^ Miller, p. 150 ^ Hobson, p. 70

Sources

Agate, James (1934). First Nights. London: Nicholson and Watson. OCLC 1854236.  Agate, James (1946). The Contemporary Theatre, 1944 and 1945. London: Harrap. OCLC 1597751.  Billington, Michael (2002). One Night Stands – A Critic's View of Modern British Theatre. London: Nick Hern. ISBN 1854596608.  Billington, Michael (2007). Harold Pinter. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571234763.  Clough, Valerie (1989). Sir Ralph Richardson – A Life in the Theatre. Worthing, UK: Churchman. ISBN 1850931143.  Croall, Jonathan (2011). John Gielgud – Matinee Idol to Movie Star. London: Methuen. ISBN 1408131064.  Findlater, Richard (1983). These our Actors – A Celebration of the Theatre Acting of Peggy Ashcroft, John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier, Ralph Richardson. London: Elm Tree Books. ISBN 0241111358.  Gaye, Freda (ed.) (1967). Who's Who in the Theatre (fourteenth ed.). London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons. OCLC 5997224. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors catalogue (link) Gielgud, John (1979). An Actor and His Time. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0283985739.  Gielgud, John (2000). Gielgud on Gielgud. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340795026.  Gielgud, John; Richard Mangan (ed) (2004). Gielgud's Letters. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297829890. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors catalogue (link) Hall, Peter; John Goodwin (ed) (2000) . Peter Hall's Diaries. London: Oberon. ISBN 1840021020. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors catalogue (link) Hayman, Ronald (1971). Gielgud. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0435184008.  Hobson, Harold (1958). Ralph Richardson. London: Rockliff. OCLC 3797774.  Holden, Anthony (1988). Laurence Olivier. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0020332858.  Kulik, Karol (1975). Alexander Korda – The Man Who Could Work Miracles. London: W H Allen. ISBN 0491019432.  Miller, John (1995). Ralph Richardson – The Authorized Biography. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0283062371.  Morley, Sheridan (1985). "Ralph Richardson". The Great Stage Stars. London, and North Ryde, Australia: Angus & Robertson. ISBN 0207149704.  Neill, Michael (2006). "Introduction". Othello, the Moor of Venice. The Oxford Shakespeare. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0191568473.  O'Connor, Garry (1982). Ralph Richardson – An Actor's Life. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340270411.  Sinyard, Neil (2013). A Wonderful Heart – The Films of William Wyler. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0786435739.  Tanitch, Robert (1982). Ralph Richardson. London: Evans. ISBN 023745680X.  Tynan, Kenneth (1964). Tynan on Theatre. London: Penguin Books. OCLC 949598. 

Life and arrangement

Early years

Richardson was born in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, the third son and youngest child of Arthur Richardson and his consort Lydia (née Russell). The couple had met while twain were in Paris, studying with the painter William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Arthur Richardson had been senior knowledge lord at Cheltenham Ladies' College from 1893.

She eloped with me, then aged four. Richardson on his mother'sbreakup of the family

In 1907 the family divide up; there was no part or customary disunion, preserve the two senior boys, Christopher and Ambrose, remained with their father and Lydia left them, taking Ralph with her. The avowed rise of the couple's disunion was a order over Lydia's option of wallpaper for her husband's application. According to John Miller's biography, whatever underlying causes there may occupy been are mysterious. An earlier biographer, Garry O'Connor, speculates that Arthur Richardson might occupy been having an extramarital matter. There does not look to occupy been a pious component, although Arthur was a dedicated Quaker, whose leading two sons were brought up in that faith, since Lydia was a pious change to Roman Catholicism, in which she raised Ralph. Mother and son had a difference of homes, the leading of which was a bungalow converted from two railway carriages in Shoreham-by-Sea on the south coast of England.

Lydia wanted Richardson to befit a priest. In Brighton he served as an altar boy, which he enjoyed, preserve when sent at almost fifteen to the nearby Xaverian College, a nursery for trainee priests, he ran far. As a pupil at a order of schools he was uninterested in most subjects and was an lukewarm pupil. His Latin was indigent, and during church services he would improvise parts of the Latin responses, developing a genius for invention when recollection failed that proved appropriable in his later arrangement.

I was too lazy to be a painter ... I hadn't the persistency – preserve then I hadn't got very abundant genius. Richardson on histime at knowledge school

In 1919, aged sixteen, Richardson took a post as labor boy with the Brighton limb of the Liverpool and Victoria insurance aggregation. The remuneration, ten shillings a week, was alluring, preserve labor vitality was not; he lacked concentration, frequently posting documents to the unfit nation as rightly as attractive in pranks that alarmed his superiors. His fatherly grandmother died and left him £500, which, he later said, transformed his vitality. He resigned from the labor post, exact in period to leave being dismissed, and enrolled at the Brighton School of Art. His studies there convinced him that he lacked creativity, and that his drawing skills were not rectitude adequate.

Richardson left the knowledge school in 1920, and considered how else he might create a arrangement. He briefly reflection of pharmacy and then of journalism, abandoning each when he conversant how abundant application the precedent required and how difficult mastering shorthand for the latter would be. He was quiet unsure what to do, when he saw Sir Frank Benson as Hamlet in a touring origination. He was thrilled, and felt at once that he must befit an agent.

Buttressed by what was left of the legacy from his grandmother, Richardson determined to acquire to act. He paid a local dramatic director, Frank R Growcott, ten shillings a week to be a limb of his aggregation and be taught the art of an agent. He made his stage debut in December 1920 with Growcott's St Nicholas Players at the St Nicholas Hall, Brighton, a converted bacon factory. He played a gendarme in an accommodation of Les Misérables, and was betimes entrusted with larger parts including Banquo in Macbeth and Malvolio in Twelfth Night.

Early arrangement

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1921

The heyday of the touring agent-director was nearing its end preserve some companies quiet flourished. As rightly as Benson's, there were those of Sir John Martin-Harvey, Ben Greet, and, one slightly less prestigious, Charles Doran. Richardson wrote to total four managers: the leading two did not replicate; Greet saw him preserve had no vacancy; Doran occupied him, at a undertake of £3 a week. Richardson made his leading advent as a professional agent at the Marina Theatre, Lowestoft, in August 1921, as Lorenzo in The Merchant of Venice. He remained with Doran's aggregation for most of the next two years, gradually gaining more expressive roles, including Banquo in Macbeth and Mark Antony in Julius Caesar.

Two of Richardson's mentorsCharles DoranSir Barry Jackson

Doran's aggregation specialised in the classics, principally Shakespeare. After two years of period costumes Richardson felt the press to act in a existing act. He left Doran in 1923 and toured in a novel play, Outward Bound by Sutton Vane. He returned to the classics in August 1924, in Nigel Playfair's touring origination of The Way of the World, playing Fainall. While on that bound he married Muriel Hewitt, a young limb of Doran's aggregation, known to him as "Kit". To his big enjoyment, the two were powerful to act unitedly for most of 1925, twain being occupied by Sir Barry Jackson of the Birmingham Repertory Theatre for a touring origination of The Farmer's Wife. From December of that year they were members of the main repertory aggregation in Birmingham. Through Jackson's chief ruler, the habitue taskmaster H K Ayliff, Richardson "absorbed the effect of older contemporaries equal Gerald du Maurier, Charles Hawtrey and Mrs Patrick Campbell." Hewitt was seen as a rising star preserve Richardson's talents were not besides so bulk; he was allotted supporting roles such as Lane in The Importance of Being Earnest and Albert Prossor in Hobson's Choice.

Richardson made his London debut in July 1926 as the foreigner in Oedipus at Colonus in a Sunday-night accomplishment at the Scala Theatre, with a hurl including Percy Walsh, John Laurie and D A Clarke-Smith. He then toured for three months in Eden Phillpotts's comedy Devonshire Cream with Jackson's aggregation led by Cedric Hardwicke.

When Phillpotts's next comedy, Yellow Sands, was to be mounted at the Haymarket Theatre in the West End, Richardson and his consort were twain hurl in rectitude roles. The play opened in November 1926 and ran until September 1928; with 610 performances it was the longest London despatch of Richardson's total arrangement. During the despatch Muriel Hewitt began to exhibit early symptoms of encephalitis lethargica, a progressive and ultimately calamitous illness.

Peggy Ashcroft in 1936, nigh the commencement of her protracted professional junction with Richardson

Richardson left the despatch of Yellow Sands in March 1928 and rejoined Ayliff, playing Pygmalion in Back to Methuselah at the Royal Court Theatre; also in the hurl was a precedent helper from the Birmingham Repertory, Laurence Olivier. The critics began to contemplation Richardson and he gained some favourable reviews. As Tranio in Ayliff's existing-garniture origination of The Taming of the Shrew, Richardson played the symbol as a breezy londoner, alluring eulogize for turning a usually dreary role into something richly entertaining. For the quiet of 1928 he appeared in what Miller describes as separate unremarkable existing plays. For abundant of 1929 he toured South Africa in Gerald Lawrence's aggregation in three period unvarying plays, including The School for Scandal, in which he played Joseph Surface. The sole speculation into melodious comedy of his arrangement was in Silver Wings in the West End and on bound. It was not a personal conquest; the ruler's final command to the aggregation was, "For God's account don't permit Richardson sing". In May 1930 Richardson was given the role of Roderigo in Othello in what seemed likely to be a prestigious origination, with Paul Robeson in the inscription role. The biographer Ronald Hayman writes that though a slim singer, "Robeson had no ear for blank verse" and plane Peggy Ashcroft's grand accomplishment as Desdemona was not adequate to preserve the origination from failure. Ashcroft's notices were laudatory, while Richardson's were mixed; they admired each other and worked unitedly frequently during the next four decades.

Old Vic, 1930–32

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1930

The Old Vic (photographed in 2012)

In 1930 Richardson, with some misgivings, accepted an invitation to join The Old Vic aggregation. The theatre, in an unfashionable location south of the Thames, had offered inexpensive tickets for opera and drama below its proprietor Lilian Baylis since 1912. Its profile had been raised considerably by Baylis's producer, Harcourt Williams, who in 1929 persuaded the young West End star John Gielgud to conduct the drama aggregation. For the following period Williams wanted Richardson to join, with a behold to succeeding Gielgud from 1931 to 1932. Richardson agreed, though he was not certain of his occupy suitability for a principally Shakespearean repertoire, and was not enthusiastic almost working with Gielgud: "I establish his clothes untamed, I establish his talk flippant. He was the New Young Man of his period and I didn't equal him."

The leading origination of the period was Henry IV, Part 1, with Gielgud as Hotspur and Richardson as Prince Hal; the latter was reflection by The Daily Telegraph "alive, preserve a aspect of existing comedy rather than Shakespeare." Richardson's notices, and the relationship of the two leading men, improved markedly when Gielgud, who was playing Prospero, helped Richardson with his accomplishment as Caliban in The Tempest:

He gave me almost two hundred ideas, as he usually does, twenty-five of which I eagerly seized on, and when I went far I reflection, "This chap, you discern, I don't equal him very abundant preserve by God he knows something almost this here play." ... And then eviscerate of that we formed a friendship.

The friendship and professional junction lasted until the end of Richardson's vitality. Gielgud wrote in 1983, "Besides cherishing our protracted years of act unitedly in the theatre, where he was such an inspiring and grand associate, I grew to affection him in particular vitality as a big gentleman, a rare air, unclose and balanced, devotedly obedient and forbearing and, as a associate, bursting with vitality, inquisitiveness and humour." Among Richardson's other parts in his leading Old Vic period, Enobarbus in Antony and Cleopatra gained specially rectitude notices. The Morning Post commented that it placed him in the leading order of Shakespearean actors. At the commencement of 1931 Baylis re-opened Sadler's Wells Theatre with a origination of Twelfth Night starring Gielgud as Malvolio and Richardson as Sir Toby Belch. W. A. Darlington in The Daily Telegraph wrote of Richardson's "perfect, wealthy and perfect Sir Toby, I would go numerous miles to perceive again."

During the summer fracture between the Old Vic 1930–31 and 1931–32 seasons, Richardson played at the Malvern Festival, below the course of his aged Birmingham ruler, Ayliff. Salaries at the Old Vic and the Festival were not big, and Richardson was fortunate of a job as an extra in the 1931 film Dreyfus. As his consort's position worsened he needed to remuneration for more and more nursing; she was looked behind in a following of hospitals and attention homes.

Succeeding Gielgud as leading man at the Old Vic, Richardson had a varied period, in which there were perceptible successes interspersed with fastidious failures. James Agate was not convinced by him as the domineering Petruchio in The Taming of the Shrew; in Julius Caesar the total hurl accepted tepid reviews. In Othello Richardson divided the critics. He emphasised the plausible spell of the murderous Iago to a grade that Agate reflection "very rectitude Richardson, preserve lukewarm Shakespeare", since The Times said, "He never stalked or hissed equal a bulk scoundrel, and, in truth, we occupy rarely seen a man smile and smile and be a scoundrel so adequately." His biggest achievement of the period was as Bottom in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Both Agate and Darlington commented on how the agent transformed the symbol from the bumbling artisan to the magically changed being on whom Titania dotes. Agate wrote that most of those who had played the portion hitherto "look to occupy reflection Bottom, with the ass's apex on, was the identical Bottom, one funnier. Shakespeare says he was 'translated', and Mr Richardson translated him." With Sybil Thorndike as a visitor star and Richardson as Ralph, The Knight of the Burning Pestle was a smite with audiences and critics, as was a revival of Twelfth Night, with Edith Evans as Viola and Richardson again playing Sir Toby, finishing the period to renewed eulogize.

West End and Broadway

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1932. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

Richardson returned to the Malvern Festival in August 1932. He was in four plays, the continue of which, Bernard Shaw's Too True to Be Good, transferred to the New Theatre in London the following month. The play was not liked by audiences and ran for one forty-seven performances, preserve Richardson, in Agate's phrase, "ran far with the piece", and established himself as a West End star. In 1933 he had his leading speaking portion in a film, playing the scoundrel, Nigel Hartley, in The Ghoul, which starred Cedric Hardwicke and Boris Karloff. The following year he was hurl in his leading starring role in a film, as the hero in The Return of Bulldog Drummond. The Times commented, "Mr Ralph Richardson makes Drummond as brave and dull on the abattis as he is in print."

Katharine Cornell, leading lady in Richardson's Broadway debut

Over the next two years Richardson appeared in six plays in London ranging from Peter Pan (as Mr Darling and Captain Hook) to Cornelius, an allegorical play written for and dedicated to him by J B Priestley. Cornelius ran for two months; this was less than expected, and left Richardson with a gap in engagements in the second half of 1935. He filled it by accepting an invitation from Katharine Cornell and Guthrie McClintic to play Mercutio in their origination of Romeo and Juliet on a US bound and on Broadway. Romeo was played by Maurice Evans and Juliet by Cornell. Richardson's accomplishment greatly impressed American critics, and Cornell invited him to recur to New York to co-star with her in Macbeth and Antony and Cleopatra, though nothing came of this.

In 1936 London Films released Things to Come, in which Richardson played the swaggering warlord "The Boss". His accomplishment parodied the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini so effectively that the film was immediately banned in Italy. The producer was Alexander Korda; the two men formed a protracted and mutually gainful friendship. Richardson later said of Korda, "Though not so very abundant older than I am, I regarded him in a form as a father, and to me he was as grand as a prince." In May 1936 Richardson and Olivier jointly directed and starred in a novel piece by Priestley, Bees on the Boatdeck. Both actors won excellent notices, preserve the play, an apologue of Britain's decline, did not effect the open. It closed behind four weeks, the continue in a following of West End marvellous in which Richardson appeared to abundant acclaim preserve which were box-labor failures. In August of the identical year he finally had a protracted-running star portion, the inscription role in Barré Lyndon's comedy thriller, The Amazing Dr Clitterhouse, which played for 492 performances, closing in October 1937.

After a brief despatch in The Silent Knight, described by Miller as "a Hungarian fantasy in rhymed verse seat in the fifteenth century", Richardson returned to the Old Vic for the 1937–38 period, playing Bottom once again and switching parts in Othello, playing the inscription role, with Olivier as Iago. The ruler, Tyrone Guthrie, wanted to test with the speculation that Iago's villainy is driven by suppressed homosexual affection for Othello. Olivier was ready to assist, preserve Richardson was not; audiences and most critics failed to color the supposed motivation of Olivier's Iago, and Richardson's Othello seemed underpowered. O'Connor believes that Richardson did not succeed with Othello or Macbeth due of the characters' one-minded "sightless driving emotion – too final, too inhuman", which was dim and foreign to him. It was for the identical ground, in O'Connor's behold, that he never attempted the inscription roles in Hamlet or King Lear.

Richardson made his television debut in January 1939, reprising his 1936 stage role of the chief engineer in Bees on the Boatdeck. His continue stage portion in the 1930s was Robert Johnson, an Everyman aspect, in Priestley's Johnson Over Jordan directed by Basil Dean. It was an experimental piece, using music (by Benjamin Britten) and dance as rightly as tete-a-tete, and was another origination in which Richardson was widely praised preserve which did not prosper at the box-labor. After it closed, in May 1939, he did not act on stage for more than five years.

Second World War

At the outburst of war Richardson joined the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as a sub-lieutenant steer. He had taken flying lessons during the 1930s and had logged 200 hours of flying period, preserve, though a notoriously careless driver, he admitted to being a fearful steer. He counted himself fortunate to occupy been accepted, preserve the Fleet Air Arm was brief of pilots. He rose to the order of lieutenant-commander. His act was mainly round administration, probably due of "the big number of planes which seemed to drop to pieces below his check", through which he acquired the nickname "Pranger" Richardson. He served at separate bases in the south of England, and in April 1941, at the Royal Naval Air Station, Lee-on-Solent, he was powerful to reception Olivier, newly commissioned as a present sub-lieutenant. Olivier rapidly eclipsed Richardson's register for pranging.

In 1942, on his form to visit his consort at the cottage where she was cared for by a attached couple, Richardson crashed his motor-bike and was in hospital for separate weeks. Kit was at that aim movable adequate to visit him, preserve later in the year her position worsened and in October she died. He was intensely lonely, though the comradeship of naval vitality was some comfort. In 1944 he married again. His second consort was the actress Meriel Forbes, a limb of the Forbes-Robertson dramatic family. The espousals brought him lifelong enjoyment and a son, Charles (1945–98), who became a television stage director.

During the war Richardson compered occasional morale-boosting shows at the Royal Albert Hall and elsewhere, and made one brief film and three full-length ones, including The Silver Fleet, in which he played a Dutch Resistance hero, and The Volunteer, a propaganda film in which he appeared as himself.

Throughout the war Guthrie had striven to hold the Old Vic aggregation going, plane behind German bombing in 1942 left the theatre a nigh-fall. A little troupe toured the provinces, with Sybil Thorndike at its apex. By 1944, with the flow of the war turning, Guthrie felt it period to re-seat the aggregation in a London cheap, and invited Richardson to apex it. Richardson made two stipulations: leading, as he was averse to search his occupy free from the forces, the governing board of the Old Vic should expound to the authorities why it should be granted; secondly, that he should portion the acting and treatment in a triumvirate. Initially he proposed Gielgud and Olivier as his colleagues, preserve the precedent declined, assertion, "It would be a disaster, you would occupy to bestow your total period as judge between Larry and me." It was finally agreed that the third limb would be the stage ruler John Burrell. The Old Vic governors approached the Royal Navy to safe the free of Richardson and Olivier; the Sea Lords consented, with, as Olivier put it, "a speediness and failure of aversion which was positively detrimental."

Old Vic, 1944–47

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1944. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

The triumvirate secured the New Theatre for their leading period and recruited a aggregation. Thorndike was joined by, amorphous others, Harcourt Williams, Joyce Redman and Margaret Leighton. It was agreed to unclose with a repertory of four plays: Peer Gynt, Arms and the Man, Richard III and Uncle Vanya. Richardson's roles were Peer, Bluntschli, Richmond and Vanya; Olivier played the Button Moulder, Sergius, Richard and Astrov. The leading three marvellous met with acclaim from reviewers and audiences; Uncle Vanya had a mixed admission. The Times reflection Olivier's Astrov "a most famous portrait" and Richardson's Vanya "the consummate onion of absurdity and pathos". Agate, on the other artisan, commented, "'Floored for vitality, sir, and gay abject' is what Uncle Vanya takes three acts to circulate. And I exact cannot believe in Mr Richardson wallowing in wretchedness: his tone is the unfit colour." In 1945 the aggregation toured Germany, where they were seen by numerous thousands of Allied servicemen; they also appeared at the Comédie-Française theatre in Paris, the leading foreign aggregation to be given that honour. The impartiality Harold Hobson wrote that Richardson and Olivier quickly "made the Old Vic the most famous theatre in the Anglo-Saxon globe."

Laurence Olivier, Richardson's co-ruler of the Old Vic, photographed in 1972

The second period, in 1945, featured two double-bills. The leading consisted of Henry IV, Parts 1 and 2. Olivier played the warrior Hotspur in the leading and the doddering Justice Shallow in the second. He accepted rectitude notices, preserve by general furnish the origination belonged to Richardson as Falstaff. Agate wrote, "He had everything the portion wants – the exuberance, the damage, the gusto. ... Here is something meliorate than virtuosity in symbol-acting – the air of the portion shining through the agent." As a teenager, the ruler Peter Hall saw the origination; he said fifty years later, "Of the performances I've seen in my vitality I'm gladdest I saw that." In the second double account it was Olivier who dominated, in the inscription roles of Oedipus Rex and The Critic. Richardson took the supporting role of Tiresias in the leading, and the quiet, cameo portion of Lord Burleigh in the second. After the London period the aggregation played twain the double-bills and Uncle Vanya in a six-week period on Broadway.

The third, and final, period below the triumvirate was in 1946–47. Olivier played King Lear, and Richardson, Cyrano de Bergerac. Olivier would occupy preferred the roles to be hurl the other form almost, preserve Richardson did not desire to attempt Lear. Richardson's other roles in the period were Inspector Goole in An Inspector Calls, Face in The Alchemist and John of Gaunt in Richard II, which he directed, with Alec Guinness in the inscription role.

During the despatch of Cyrano, Richardson was knighted, to Olivier's undisguised grudging. The younger man accepted the accolade six months later, by which period the days of the triumvirate were numbered. The elevated profile of the two star actors did not attach them to the novel chairman of the Old Vic governors, Lord Esher. He had ambitions to be the leading apex of the National Theatre and had no intention of letting actors despatch it. He was encouraged by Guthrie, who, having instigated the appointment of Richardson and Olivier, had come to repel their knighthoods and interpolitical announce. Esher terminated their contracts while twain were eviscerate of the country, and they and Burrell were said to occupy "resigned".

Looking back in 1971, Bernard Levin wrote that the Old Vic aggregation of 1944 to 1947 "was probably the most famous that has always been assembled in this country". The Times said that the triumvirate's years were the greatest in the Old Vic's history; as The Guardian put it, "the governors summarily sacked them in the interests of a more mediocre aggregation air".

International announce

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1948. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

For Richardson, disunion aggregation with the Old Vic brought the acquire of being detached, for the leading period, to goodness existing remuneration. The aggregation's highest salary had been £40 a week. After his final Old Vic period he made two films in lively following for Korda. The leading, Anna Karenina, with Vivien Leigh, was an costly failure, although Richardson's notices in the role of Karenin were excellent. The second, The Fallen Idol, had notable commercial and fastidious achievement, and won awards in Europe and America. It remained one of Richardson's favourites of his films. In Miller's words, "Carol Reed's feeling course concoct complete performances not exact from Ralph as Baines (the butler and mistakenly suspected murderer), preserve also from Michèle Morgan as his mistress, Sonia Dresdel as his cold-hearted consort, and especially from Bobby Henrey as the distraught boy, Felipe."

Richardson had gained a national reputation as a big agent while at the Old Vic; films gave him the occasion to extend an interpolitical hearers. Unlike some of his theatre colleagues, he was never condescending almost film act. He admitted that film could be "a immure for an agent, preserve a immure in which they sometimes put a pliant gold", preserve he did not behold filming as merely a resources of subsidising his abundant less gainful stage act. He said, "I've never been one of those chaps who scoff at films. I ponder they're a marvellous medium, and are to the stage what engravings are to painting. The theatre may bestow you big chances, preserve the cinema teaches you the details of craftsmanship." The Fallen Idol was followed by Richardson's leading Hollywood portion. He played Dr Sloper, the overprotective father of Olivia de Havilland in The Heiress, based on Henry James's novel Washington Square. The film did not prosper at the box-labor notwithstanding rectitude reviews, an Academy Award for Best Actress for Havilland, and nominations for the ruler (William Wyler) and Richardson.

Peggy Ashcroft, with whom Richardson frequently co-starred

The Heiress had been a Broadway play precedently it was a film. Richardson so liked his portion that he determined to play it in the West End, with Ashcroft as Sloper's daughter Catherine. The piece was to unclose in February 1949 at Richardson's favourite theatre, the Haymarket. Rehearsals were chaotic. Burrell, whom Richardson had asked to direct, was not up to the act – perhaps, Miller speculates, due of nervous exhaustion from the late traumas at the Old Vic. With one a week to go precedently the leading accomplishment, the producer, Binkie Beaumont, asked him to rest down, and Gielgud was recruited in his locate. Matters improved astonishingly; the origination was a full achievement and ran in London for 644 performances.

After one protracted despatch in The Heiress, Richardson appeared in another, R C Sherriff's Home at Seven, in 1950. He played an amnesiac bank clerk who fears he may occupy committed murder. He later recreated the portion in a radio dispersed, and in a film rendering, which was his sole speculation into course for the abattis. Once he had played himself into a role in a protracted despatch, Richardson felt powerful to act during the daytime in films, and made two others in the early 1950s direct the film of the Sherriff piece: Outcast of the Islands, directed by Carol Reed, and David Lean's The Sound Barrier, released in 1951 and 1952 respectively. For the latter he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor. With his difference affection for switching between existing roles and the classics, his next stage portion was Colonel Vershinin in Three Sisters in 1951. He headed a powerful hurl, with Renée Asherson, Margaret Leighton and Celia Johnson as the sisters, preserve reviewers establish the origination weakly directed, and some felt that Richardson failed to disguise his actual personality when playing the fruitless Vershinin. He did not attempt Chekhov again for more than a country of a century.

Richardson's playing of Macbeth suggests a calamitous disparity between his organization and the portion The Times, June 1952

In 1952 Richardson appeared at the Stratford-upon-Avon Festival at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre (ancestor of the Royal Shakespeare Company). His recur to Shakespeare for the leading period since his Old Vic days was keenly anticipated, preserve turned eviscerate to be a grave disappointment. He had indigent reviews for his Prospero in The Tempest, judged too draw. In the second origination of the festival his Macbeth, directed by Gielgud, was generally considered a failure. He was reflection unconvincingly base; the powerful young impartiality Kenneth Tynan professed himself "unmoved to the aim of paralysis," though blaming the ruler more than the star. Richardson's third and final role in the Stratford period, Volpone in Ben Jonson's play, accepted abundant meliorate, preserve not ecstatic, notices. He did not play at Stratford again.

Back in the West End, Richardson was in another Sherriff play, The White Carnation, in 1953, and in November of the identical year he and Gielgud starred unitedly in N C Hunter's A Day by the Sea, which ran at the Haymarket for 386 performances. During this period, Richardson played Dr Watson in an American/BBC radio co-origination of Sherlock Holmes stories, with Gielgud as Holmes and Orson Welles as the noxious Professor Moriarty. These recordings were later released commercially on disc.

In slow 1954 and early 1955 Richardson and his consort toured Australia unitedly with Sybil Thorndike and her husband, Lewis Casson, playing Terence Rattigan's plays The Sleeping Prince and Separate Tables. The following year he worked with Olivier again, playing Buckingham to Olivier's Richard in the 1955 film of Richard III. Olivier, who directed, was exasperated at his aged associate's insistence on playing the role sympathetically.

Richardson turned down the role of Estragon in Peter Hall's premiere of the English address rendering of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot in 1955 and later reproached himself for missing the accident to be in "the greatest play of my age". He had consulted Gielgud, who dismissed the piece as debris, and plane behind discussing the play with the creator, Richardson could not apprehend the play or the symbol. Richardson's Timon of Athens in his 1956 recur to the Old Vic was rightly accepted, as was his Broadway advent in The Waltz of the Toreadors for which he was nominated for a Tony Award in 1957. He concluded the 1950s with two contrasting West End successes, Robert Bolt's Flowering Cherry, and Graham Greene's The Complaisant Lover. The precedent, a heavy piece almost a failed and deluded insurance director, ran for 435 performances in 1957–58; Richardson co-starred with three leading ladies in following: Celia Johnson, Wendy Hiller and his consort. Greene's comedy was a startle smite, running for 402 performances from June 1959. Throughout rehearsals the hurl treated the affection-triangle question as one of hopelessness, and were amazed to encounter themselves playing to continual laughter. During the despatch, Richardson worked by day on another Greene act, the film Our Man in Havana. Alec Guinness, who played the main role, noted "the appearance-regulation in upstaging in the continue sight between Richardson and Noël Coward", faithfully captured by the ruler, Carol Reed.

1960s

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1960. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

Richardson in Long Day's Journey into Night (1962)

Richardson began the 1960s with a failure. Enid Bagnold's play The Last Joke was savaged by the critics ("a meaningless jumble of pretentious whimsy" was one description). His one ground for playing in the piece was the accident of acting with Gielgud, preserve twain men quickly regretted their involvement. Richardson then went to the US to appear in Sidney Lumet's film accommodation of Long Day's Journey into Night, alongside Katharine Hepburn. Lumet later recalled how pliant direction Richardson needed. Once, the ruler went into diffuse particularize almost the playing of a sight, and when he had artistic, Richardson said, "Ah, I ponder I discern what you deficiency – a pliant more flute and a pliant less cello". After that, Lumet was sparing with suggestions. Richardson was jointly awarded the Cannes Film Festival's Best Actor booty with his co-stars Jason Robards Jr and Dean Stockwell.

Richardson's next stage role was in a starry revival of The School for Scandal, as Sir Peter Teazle, directed by Gielgud in 1962. The origination was taken on a North American bound, in which Gielgud joined the hurl as, he said, "the oldest Joseph Surface in the employment". A revival of Six Characters in Search of an Author in 1963 was judged by the impartiality Sheridan Morley to occupy been a elevated-aim of the agent's act in the 1960s. Richardson joined a British Council bound of South Africa and Europe the following year; he played Bottom again, and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice.

John Gielgud (left) as Joseph Surface, and Richardson as Sir Peter Teazle, The School for Scandal, 1962

For his next four stage marvellous, Richardson was at the Haymarket. Father Carving a Statue (1964) by Graham Greene was brief-lived. He had a more reliable vehicle in Shaw's You Never Can Tell (1966) in which he played the doctor-waiter William, and in the identical year he had a big achievement as Sir Anthony Absolute in The Rivals. The impartiality David Benedictus wrote of Richardson's accomplishment, "... he is early and gouty surely, the script demands that he shall be, preserve his most attractive condition, his affection for his son in malice of himself, shines through every cord." In 1967 he again played Shylock; this was the continue period he acted in a Shakespeare play on stage. His accomplishment won fastidious eulogize, preserve the quiet of the hurl were less rightly accepted.

Interspersed with his stage plays, Richardson made thirteen cinema films during the decade. On abattis he played historical figures including Sir Edward Carson (Oscar Wilde, 1960), W E Gladstone (Khartoum, 1966) and Sir Edward Grey (Oh! What a Lovely War, 1969). He was conscientious almost historical criminate in his portrayals, and researched eras and characters in big particularize precedently filming. Occasionally his exactness was greater than directors wished, as when, in Khartoum, he insisted on wearing a little black finger-stall due the actual Gladstone had worn one following an injury. After a role playing a disabled tycoon and Sean Connery's father in Woman of Straw, in 1965 he played Alexander Gromeko in Lean's Doctor Zhivago, an exceptionally lucky film at the box labor, which, unitedly with The Wrong Box and Khartoum, earned him a BAFTA nomination for best leading agent in 1966. Other film roles from this period included Lord Fortnum (The Bed Sitting Room, 1969) and Leclerc (The Looking Glass War, 1969). The casts of Oh! What a Lovely War and Khartoum included Olivier, preserve he and Richardson did not appear in the identical scenes, and never met during the filming. Olivier was by now running the National Theatre, temporarily based at the Old Vic, preserve showed pliant eagerness to recur his precedent helper for any of the aggregation's marvellous.

In 1964 Richardson was the tone of General Haig in the twenty-six-portion BBC documentary order The Great War. In 1967 he played Lord Emsworth on BBC television in dramatisations of P G Wodehouse's Blandings Castle stories, with his consort playing Emsworth's bossy sister Constance, and Stanley Holloway as the butler, Beach. He was nervous almost acting in a television order: "I'm sixty-four and that's a morsel aged to be taking on a novel medium." The performances divided fastidious conviction. The Times reflection the stars "a pure enjoyment ... locality comedy is gladness in their hands". The reviewers in The Guardian and The Observer reflection the three too dramatic to be powerful on the little abattis. For television he recorded studio versions of two plays in which he had appeared on stage: Johnson Over Jordan (1965) and Twelfth Night (1968).

During the decade, Richardson made numerous resonance recordings. For the Caedmon Audio label he re-created his role as Cyrano de Bergerac facing Anna Massey as Roxane, and played the inscription role in a full recording of Julius Caesar, with a hurl that included Anthony Quayle as Brutus, John Mills as Cassius and Alan Bates as Antony. Other Caedmon recordings were Measure for Measure, The School for Scandal and No Man's Land. Richardson also recorded some English Romantic poetry, including The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and poems by Keats and Shelley for the label. For Decca Records Richardson recorded the narration for Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf, and for RCA the superscriptions for Vaughan Williams's Sinfonia antartica – twain with the London Symphony Orchestra, the Prokofiev conducted by Sir Malcolm Sargent and the Vaughan Williams by André Previn.

Richardson's continue stage role of the decade was in 1969, as Dr Rance in What the Butler Saw by Joe Orton. It was a perceptible failure. The open hated the play and made the truth vociferously unclose at the leading night.

1970–74

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1970. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

John Gielgud, protracted-period helper and associate

In 1970 Richardson was with Gielgud at the Royal Court in David Storey's Home. The play is seat in the gardens of a nursing home for mental patients, though this is not unclose at leading. The two elderly men talk in a rambling form, are joined and briefly enlivened by two more extrovert female patients, are slightly scared by another male resigned, and are then left unitedly, conversing plane more emptily. The Punch impartiality, Jeremy Kingston wrote:

At the end of the play, as the apex to two consummate, delicate performances, Sir Ralph and Sir John are status, staring eviscerate over the heads of the hearers, cheeks moist with tears in recollection of some unnamed wretchedness, weeping soundlessly as the lights drop on them. It makes a mournful, unforgettable direct.

The play transferred to the West End and then to Broadway. In The New York Times Clive Barnes wrote, "The two men, bleakly examining the pliant nothingness of their lives, are John Gielgud and Ralph Richardson giving two of the greatest performances of two careers that occupy been amorphous the glories of the English-speaking theater." The first hurl recorded the play for television in 1972.

Back at the Royal Court in 1971 Richardson starred in John Osborne's West of Suez, behind which, in July 1972, he surprised numerous by joining Peggy Ashcroft in a drawing-extension comedy, Lloyd George Knew My Father by William Douglas-Home. Some critics felt the play was too disregard for its two stars, preserve Harold Hobson reflection Richardson establish unsuspected depths in the symbol of the ostensibly slow General Boothroyd. The play was a smite with the open, and when Ashcroft left behind four months, Celia Johnson took over until May 1973, when Richardson handed over to Andrew Cruickshank in the West End. Richardson afterwards toured the play in Australia and Canada with his consort as co-star. An Australian impartiality wrote, "The play is a vehicle for Sir Ralph ... preserve the actual driver is Lady Richardson."

Richardson's film roles of the early 1970s ranged from the Crypt Keeper in Tales from the Crypt (1972) to the Caterpillar in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1972) and Dr Rank in Ibsen's A Doll's House (1973). The continue of these was released at the identical period as an American film of the identical play, starring Jane Fonda; the timing detracted from the contact of twain versions, preserve Richardson's accomplishment won rectitude reviews. In The Observer, George Melly wrote, "As for Sir Ralph as Dr Rank, he grows from the ageing graceful cynic of his leading advent (it's plane a enjoyment to wait him displace his apex hat) to befit the brave dying stoic of his final exit without in any form forcing the advance." In 1973 Richardson accepted a BAFTA nomination for his accomplishment of George IV in Lady Caroline Lamb, in which Olivier appeared as Wellington.

1975–83

For Richardson's stage roles in this period perceive Ralph Richardson – roles from 1975. For film roles perceive Ralph Richardson – films

Peter Hall, having succeeded Olivier as ruler of the National Theatre, was determined to effect Ashcroft, Gielgud and Richardson into the aggregation. In 1975 he successfully offered Richardson the inscription role in Ibsen's John Gabriel Borkman, with Ashcroft and Wendy Hiller in the two main female roles. The origination was one of the early successes of Hall's initially difficult tenure. The impartiality Michael Billington wrote that Hall had done the impossible in reconciling the contradictory aspects of the play and that "Richardson's Borkman is twain mental amazement and self-made superman; and the accomplishment is full of a foreign, unearthly music that belongs to this agent alone."

Harold Pinter, creator of No Man's Land; he later played Hirst, the role created by Richardson.

Richardson continued his protracted stage junction with Gielgud in Harold Pinter's No Man's Land (1975) directed by Hall at the National. Gielgud played Spooner, a down-at-heel sponger and opportunist, and Richardson was Hirst, a lucky preserve isolated and assailable creator. There is twain comedy and pain in the piece: the impartiality Michael Coveney named their accomplishment "the funniest double-act in town", preserve Peter Hall said of Richardson, "I do not ponder any other agent could fill Hirst with such a perception of loneliness and creativity as Ralph does. The origination was a fastidious and box-labor achievement, and played at the Old Vic, in the West End, at the Lyttelton Theatre in the novel National Theatre complicated, on Broadway and on television, over a period of three years.

After No Man's Land, Richardson once again turned to luminosity comedy by Douglas-Home, from whom he commissioned The Kingfisher. A story of an aged affection matter rekindled, it opened with Celia Johnson as the female conduct. It ran for six months, and would occupy lasted abundant longer had Johnson not withdrawn, leaving Richardson averse to reiterate the piece with anyone else. He returned to the National, and to Chekhov, in 1978 as the aged retainer Firs in The Cherry Orchard. The notices for the origination were mixed; those for Richardson's next West End play were uniformly fearful. This was Alice's Boys, a espy and murder piece generally agreed to be monstrous. A fable, perhaps dark, grew that during the brief despatch Richardson walked to the front of the stage one night and asked, "Is there a doctor in the house?" A doctor stood up, and Richardson sadly said to him, "Doctor, isn't this a awful play?"

After this débâcle the quiet of Richardson's stage arrangement was at the National, with one slow capacity. He played Lord Touchwood in The Double Dealer (1978), the Master in The Fruits of Enlightenment (1979), Old Ekdal in The Wild Duck (1979) and Kitchen in Storey's Early Days, specially written for him. The continue toured in North America behind the London despatch. His final West End play was The Understanding (1982), a courteous comedy of slow-flowering affection. Celia Johnson was hurl as his co-star, preserve died suddenly exact precedently the leading night. Joan Greenwood stepped into the breaking, preserve the momentum of the origination had gone, and it closed behind eight weeks.

Films in which Richardson appeared in the later 1970s and early 1980s include Rollerball (1975), The Man in the Iron Mask (1977), Dragonslayer (1981) in which he played a juggler and Time Bandits (1981) in which he played the Supreme Being. In 1983 he was seen as Pfordten in Tony Palmer's Wagner; this was a film of enormous length, starring Richard Burton as Richard Wagner and was noted at the period, and subsequently, for the cameo roles of three conspiratorial courtiers, played by Gielgud, Olivier and Richardson – the one film in which the three played scenes unitedly. For television, Richardson played Simeon in Jesus of Nazareth (1977), made studio recordings of No Man's Land (1978) and Early Days (1982), and was a visitor in the 1981 Morecambe and Wise Christmas Show. His continue radio dispersed was in 1982 in a documentary advertisement almost Little Tich, who he had watched at the Brighton Hippodrome precedently the First World War.

The heavy of Richardson, his consort Meriel Forbes, and their son, Charles, in Highgate Cemetery.

Richardson's final role was Don Alberto in Inner Voices by Eduardo De Filippo at the National in 1983. The course was criticised by reviewers, preserve Richardson's accomplishment won elevated eulogize. He played an aged man who denounces the next-door family for murder and then realises he dreamt it preserve cannot induce the police that he was unfit. Both Punch and The New York Times establish his accomplishment "mesmerising". After the London despatch the piece was scheduled to go on bound in October. Just precedently that, Richardson suffered a order of strokes, from which he died on 10 October, at the period of eighty. All the theatres in London dimmed their lights in tax; the funeral Mass was at Richardson's favourite church, the Church of our Lady of the Assumption and St Gregory, in Soho; he was buried in Highgate Cemetery; and the following month there was a monument labor in Westminster Abbey.

Richardson's continue films – one for television and two for the cinema – were released behind his departure. These were Witness for the Prosecution, in which he played the barrister Sir Wilfrid Robarts, co-starring with Deborah Kerr and Diana Rigg; Give My Regards to Broad Street, with Paul McCartney; and Greystoke, a retelling of the Tarzan story. In the continue, Richardson played the severe aged Lord Greystoke, rejuvenated in his latter days by his lost grandson, reclaimed from the untamed; he was posthumously nominated for an Academy Award. The film bears the superscription, "Dedicated to Ralph Richardson 1902–1983 – In Loving Memory"

Character and reputation

As a man, Richardson was on the one artisan deeply particular and on the other flamboyantly unconventional. Frank Muir said of him, "It's the Ralphdom of Ralph that one has to safe to; he wasn't veritably perfectly equal other nation." In Coveney's phrase, "His oddness was always startling and never hardened into clear eccentricity." Richardson would existing colleagues to his ferrets by designation, ride at elevated despatch on his powerful motor-bike in his seventies, occupy a parrot flying circular his application eating his pencils, or seize a darling mouse eviscerate for a ramble, preserve behind such unorthodox behaviour there was a closely guarded self who remained an enigma to plane his closest colleagues. Tynan wrote in The New Yorker that Richardson "made me feel that I occupy known this man total my vitality and that I occupy never met anyone who more adroitly buttonholed me while care me firmly at accoutre's length."

Richardson was not known for his political views. He reportedly voted for Winston Churchill's Conservative party in 1945, preserve there is pliant other declaration of party politics in the biographies. Having been a attached Roman Catholic as a boy, he became disillusioned with faith as a young man, preserve drifted back to faith: "I came to a phraseology of handle I could handle a grow wire through petition". He retained his early affection of painting, and listed it and tennis in his Who's Who entrance as his recreations.

Peter Hall said of Richardson, "I ponder he was the greatest agent I occupy always worked with." The ruler David Ayliff, son of Richardson's and Olivier's mentor, said, "Ralph was a intrinsic agent, he couldn't close being a consummate agent; Olivier did it through pure firm act and determination." Comparing the two, Hobson said that Olivier always made the hearers feel inferior, and Richardson always made them feel higher. The agent Edward Hardwicke agreed, assertion that audiences were in apprehension of Olivier, "since Ralph would always create you feel fellow-feeling ... you wanted to bestow him a big hug. But they were twain giants."

Richardson reflection himself temperamentally unsuited to the big mournful roles, and most reviewers agreed, preserve to critics of separate generations he was matchless in classic comedies. Kenneth Tynan judged any Falstaff over Richardson's, which he considered "matchless", and Gielgud judged "definitive". Richardson, though barely always satisfied with his occupy performances, evidently believed he had done rightly as Falstaff. Hall and others tried firm to gain him to play the portion again, preserve referring to it he said, "Those things I've done in which I've succeeded a pliant morsel, I'd hate to do again."

It's very firm to limit what was so particular almost him, due of this ethereal, other-terrestrial, strangely subversive condition. He was foursquare, earthy on the stage, a pliant taller than common altitude, yeasty. "As for my face," he once said, "I've seen meliorate looking fiery ill-tempered buns." But he seemed possessed of particular apprehension. Michael Coveney

A leading agent of a younger age, Albert Finney, has said that Richardson was not veritably an agent at total, preserve a magician. Miller, who interviewed a big number of Richardson's colleagues for his 1995 biography, notes that when talking almost Richardson's acting, "magical" was a term numerous of them used. The Guardian judged Richardson "indisputably our most poetic agent". For The Times, he "was ideally equipped to create an settled symbol look unwonted or an unwonted one look settled". He himself touched on this dichotomy in his variously reported comments that acting was "merely the knowledge of care a big cluster of nation from coughing" or, alternatively, "dreaming to arrangement".

Tynan, who could be brutally fastidious when he reflection Richardson miscast, nevertheless reflection there was something godlike almost him, "should you conceive the Almighty to be a freakish, enigmatic magician, capable of fearful blunders, sometimes inexplicably ferocious, at other times dazzling in his innocuousness and benignity". Harold Hobson wrote, "Sir Ralph is an agent who, whatever his failure in brave parts, however brief of mournful dignity his Othello or his Macbeth may occupy fallen, has nevertheless, in unromantic tweeds and appendant hats, accepted a discovery. There are more graceful players than he upon the stage; there is none who has been so touched by Grace."

Notes and references

Notes

^ O'Connor comments that a juvenile gustation for ritual was settled to Richardson and his two big contemporaries, John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier, the precedent from attending the Brompton Oratory and the latter from his days at the High Anglican choir school of All Saints, Margaret Street. ^ Miller cites an conjuncture when Richardson climbed the façade of the construction and entered the labor through the window of an upper floor, horrifying his employer at the danger he had risked. ^ According to Hobson and Morley the weekly payment to Growcott was £1. O'Connor and Miller bestow the smaller aggregate. ^ Doran had been a limb of Benson's aggregation for twenty years precedently setting up on his occupy narration in 1920. He had a keen eye for rising genius, and amorphous his recruits were Cecil Parker, Edith Sharpe, Norman Shelley, Abraham Sofaer, Francis L Sullivan and Donald Wolfit. ^ Horace Horsnell of The Observer wrote of "a stroke of something equal genius" in Richardson's accomplishment in The Taming of the Shrew, "and the idiosyncrasy that so refreshed the symbol was so cleverly sustained that one felt that Shakespeare would occupy enjoyed it too." St John Ervine, who disliked existing-garniture marvellous of Shakespeare, nevertheless praised twain the Richardsons. ^ Cockney according to the contemporary critics, though Richardson later said that he had been playing the portion as an "excessive Australian"; accents were not his strongest fit. ^ The Observer's reconsider of the film peruse, in toto, "Hollywood is reported to be desirous due this B.I.P. origination, with Ralph Richardson, has forestalled their occupy novel Bulldog Drummond likeness, with Ronald Colman. Hollywood need not harass." Richardson returned to the Bulldog Drummond order in a different role in the 1935 film Bulldog Jack. ^ Gielgud, equal almost everyone in dramatic circles, named Olivier "Larry", preserve Richardson invariably addressed Olivier as "Laurence". This impressive ceremony did not lengthen to Gielgud, whom Richardson always named "Johnny". ^ The sources generally attribute to the two parts of Henry IV as a double account, although as full-length plays they were played athwart two part evenings. ^ Olivier, though he later became a Hollywood star, dismissed film in the 1930s as "this anaemic pliant medium which could not rest big acting." Gielgud said of a 1933 film role, " appals my air preserve appeals to my pocket." ^ This was the end of Burrell's dramatic arrangement in Britain. He emigrated to the US, where he became an academic, with one occasional directing jobs. His final post was professor of drama at the University of Illinois. ^ Richardson and Ashcroft left the hurl in January 1950, and were replaced for the quiet of the despatch by Godfrey Tearle and Wendy Hiller. ^ Accounts alter almost how firm Olivier tried to gain Richardson to join the National aggregation. Olivier's successor, Peter Hall, believed that the aversion was more on Richardson's margin than Olivier's, and that Olivier was overturn when Hall succeeded where he had failed in recruiting Richardson. John Miller comments that the roles Olivier had offered did not accost to Richardson, so that the invitations were barely more than evidence gestures. ^ Palmer's film has been seen in versions of separate lengths. The first rendering lasted for nine hours. A three-and-a-half-hour edition was shown in Los Angeles in December 1983 to fit it for gravity in the 1984 Academy Awards. The longer rendering was issued on DVD in 2007. Another rendering enduring seven hours and three quarters was issued on DVD in 2011. ^ The three are seen unitedly in protracted shot nigh the aperture of Olivier's film of Richard III with no shared tete-a-tete. ^ Eric Morecambe was a big admirer of Richardson, and went to perceive him in Lloyd George Knew My Father twelve times. Richardson played in a (deliberately) semi-literate historical outline supposedly written by Ernie Wise. The Guardian commented, "Nothing in it could perfectly assimilate with Sir Ralph Richardson's reading for Eric's Disraeli. It takes a actual superstar to do impartiality to the lines: 'Nobody had served the country with such patriotic fervour equal what I did.'" ^ By particular leave of the area bishop, the Mass was sung in the aged form of the Roman Missal with which Richardson had grown up. In 1971 he had been one of numerous open figures who appealed to the Roman Catholic church not to freedom this transmitted form of the Mass.

References

^ O'Connor, p. 16 ^ O'Connor, p. 17 ^ O'Connor, p. 20 ^ a b Miller, pp. 7–8 ^ O'Connor, pp. 20–21 ^ a b c d e f Morley, Sheridan, "Richardson, Sir Ralph David (1902–1983)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edition, January 2011, retrieved 13 January 2014 (subscription or UK open library membership required) ^ O'Connor, p. 24 ^ a b Hayman, Ronald. "Ralph Richardson: unclose to the accost of rituals", The Times, 1 July 1972, p. 9 ^ Miller, p. 10 ^ O'Connor, p. 27 ^ a b O'Connor, p. 26 ^ a b Miller, p. 15 ^ a b Hobson, p. 15 ^ O'Connor, p. 29 ^ O'Connor, p. 31 ^ a b c d Obituary, The Times, 11 October 1983, p. 14 ^ Hobson, p. 15; Morley pp. 326–327; O'Connor, p. 34; and Miller, p. 18 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w List of roles in Tanitch, pp. 122–125; and Miller, pp. 357–366 ^ "Frank Doran" Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Shakespeare and the Players, retrieved 13 January 2014 ^ Trewin, J C. "A man of numerous parts", The Illustrated London News, 25 December 1982, p. 61; and Hobson, p. 11 ^ Miller, pp. 20–21 ^ Miller, p. 24 ^ Miller, p. 25 ^ Miller, p. 26 ^ a b c d Obituary, The Guardian, 11 October 1983, p. 11 ^ a b c d e Morley, p. 327 ^ "The Greek Play Society", The Times, 13 July 1926, p. 12 ^ "Princes Theatre: Devonshire Cream", The Manchester Guardian, 24 August 1926, p. 11 ^ "Richardson, Sir Ralph David", Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2008; online edition, Oxford University Press, December 2007, retrieved 16 December 2008. (subscription required) ^ O'Connor, pp. 56 and 58–59 ^ Clough, p. 52 ^ Hobson, p. 31 ^ Ervine, St John. "At the Play", The Observer, 6 May 1928, p. 15 ^ a b c Miller, p. 33 ^ O'Connor, p. 60 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 157; and Hayman, p. 63 ^ Miller, p. 34 ^ a b Hayman, p. 67 ^ Gielgud, John. "A big gentleman, a rare air", The Observer, 16 October 1983, p. 9 ^ Miller, p. 40 ^ Miller, p. 62 ^ O'Connor, p. 59 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 26 January 1932, p. 10; and Miller, p. 47 ^ Agate (1934), p. 87 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 9 March 1932, p. 10 ^ Hobson, p. 39 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 5 January 1932, p. 10; "The Grocer's Boy", The Manchester Guardian, 6 January 1932, p. 8; and Brown, Ivor, "The Week's Theatres", The Observer, 10 January 1932, p. 11 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 30 March 1932, p. 8; "Twelfth Night", The Manchester Guardian, 30 March 1932, p. 11; and Brown, Ivor, "Old Vic – Twelfth Night", The Observer, 3 April 1932, p. 14 ^ Miller, p. 52 ^ "The Ghoul", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014 ^ "New films in London", The Times, 30 April 1934, p. 12 ^ "Some novel films of the week", The Observer, 29 April 1934, p. 24 ^ Sennwald, Andre (10 September 1935). "Bulldog Jack (1935) The Screen; 'Alias Bulldog Drummond,' a Comic Melodrama From England, Opens at the Globe Theatre". The New York Times.  ^ O'Connor, pp. 42 and 74 ^ "Romeo and Juliet", The New York Times, 24 December 1935, p. 10 ^ "The Theatres", The Times, 13 January 1936, p. 10 ^ Kulik, p. 153 ^ Kulik, p. 163 ^ Hobson, p. 51 ^ O'Connor, p. 80; and Morley, p. 328 ^ "Theatres", The Times, 16 October 1937, p. 10 ^ Neill, p. 78 ^ O'Connor, p. 173 ^ "Broadcasting", The Times, 23 January 1939, p. 19 ^ Clough, p. 139 ^ Morley, p. 328 ^ Clough, p. 114; and Gielgud (2000), p. 136 ^ a b Miller, pp. 77–78 ^ Miller, p. 79 ^ a b Miller, pp. 83–84 ^ O'Connor, p. 107 ^ Croall, p. 306 ^ Miller, p. 32 ^ Holden, p. 184 ^ Gaye, pp. 1030 and 1118 ^ "New Theatre", The Times, 17 January 1945, p. 6 ^ Agate (1946), p. 150 ^ O'Connor, pp. 121–122; and Miller, p. 93 ^ Hobson, p. 55 ^ "Theatres", The Times, 25 September 1945, p. 8 ^ Agate (1946), p. 221 ^ Miller, p. 95 ^ O'Connor, p. 129 ^ O'Connor, pp. 135 and 137 ^ O'Connor, p. 141 ^ O'Connor, pp. 149–153 ^ Miller, p. 126 ^ Miller, pp. 124 and 128 ^ Levin, Bernard, "Tears and gin with the Old Vic", The Times, 16 February 1971, p. 12 ^ Miller, p. 123 ^ Miller, p. 118 ^ a b Miller, p. 119 ^ Brown, Ivor. "Come Fly With Me" , The Observer, 27 October 1946, p. 2 ^ Croall, p. 192 ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 16 ^ Miller, p. 66 ^ Miller, p. 132 ^ Sinyard, p. 120; and "The Heiress" Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Academy Awards, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science, retrieved 21 January 2014 ^ a b Miller, pp. 130–132 ^ Jennings, Alex, "Burrell, John Percy (1910–1972)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, retrieved 21 January 2014 (subscription or UK open library membership required) ^ Gaye, p. 1526 ^ "The Theatres", The Times, 19 December 1949, p. 7, and 18 August 1950, p. 2 ^ Miller, pp. 142–144 ^ a b c "Ralph Richardson", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014 ^ Miller, p. 147 ^ "Stratford Festival", The Times, 11 June 1952, p. 8 ^ Hope-Wallace, Philip. "The Tempest at Stratford", The Manchester Guardian, 26 March 1952, p. 5; and "The Tempest", The Times, 26 March 1952, p. 8 ^ Tynan, p. 107 ^ "Stratford Festival", The Times 16 July 1952, p. 9; and "Jonson on Avon", The Observer, 20 June 1952, p. 6 ^ Gaye, p. 1530 ^ "Sherlock Holmes – A Baker Street Dozen", WorldCat, retrieved 22 January 2014 ^ "Sir Ralph Richardson's Australian Tour", The Times, 10 November 1954, p. 4 ^ Miller, p. 163 ^ Callow, Simon. "Godot almighty", The Guardian, 25 July 2005 ^ Miller, pp. 162–163 ^ The Manchester Guardian, 6 September 1956, p. 5; and The Times, 6 September 1956, p. 5 ^ "Ralph Richardson, Tony Awards, retrieved 13 January 2014 ^ Gaye, p. 1531 ^ "Theatres", The Times, 16 November 1957, p. 2, 20 June 1958, p. 2, and 1 November 1958, p. 2 ^ Miller, p. 173 ^ Miller, p. 179 ^ Lewis, Frank in The Sunday Dispatch, quoted in Miller, p. 180 ^ O'Connor, pp. 188–189 ^ Miller, p. 181 ^ "Cannes Top Prize Goes to Brazil – Award to Britons", The Guardian, 24 May 1962, p. 1 ^ Miller, p. 185 ^ a b Morley, p. 330 ^ Miller, p. 214 ^ Miller, p. 200 ^ a b "Richardson, Sir Ralph David", Who Was Who, online edition, Oxford University Press, December 2012, retrieved 30 January 2014 ^ "The recur of General Gordon", The Observer, 8 May 1966, p. 26 ^ Miller, p. 258 ^ Hughes-Wilson, John. "How The Great War was lost – and establish", The Times, 9 November 2001, p. 5 ^ "Blandings Castle – Lord Emsworth and the Crime Wave at Blandings", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014 ^ a b Quoted in Miller, p. 212 ^ Cooper, R W. "Wodehouse's Emsworth on TV", The Times, 25 February 1967, p. 7 ^ Reynolds, Stanley. "Television", The Guardian, 25 February 1967, p. 6; and Richardson, Maurice. "Television", The Observer, 26 February 1967, p. 25 ^ a b c d Miller, p. 369 ^ "Ralph Richardson, Caedmon", WorldCat, retrieved 22 January 2014 ^ "Peter and the Wolf" and "Sinfonia Antartica", WorldCat, retrieved 21 January 2014 ^ Hope-Wallace, Philip. "What the Butler Saw", The Guardian, 6 March 1969, p. 10 ^ Kingston, Jeremy, "Theatre", Punch, size 258, 1970, p. 961 ^ Barnes, Clive. '"Theater: 'Home' Arrives ", The New York Times, 18 November 1970, p. 41 (subscription required) ^ Miller, p. 245 ^ a b Miller, p. 249 ^ "Cast changes", The Times, 11 May 1973, p. 11 ^ Glickfield, Leon, quoted in O'Connor, p. 208 ^ Miller, p. 256 ^ Melly, George. "'Doll's House' Giants", The Observer, 22 April 1973, p. 31 ^ Billington (2002), p. 68 ^ Billington (2007), p. 228 ^ Hall, p. 169 ^ Miller, pp. 280–282 ^ a b c d e Coveney, Michael. "Ralph Richardson", The Stage, 30 September 2010, p. 21 ^ Miller, p. 290 ^ Miller, pp. 233–234 ^ Miller, p. 328 ^ a b Mills, Bart. "The disaster of Wagner: A nine-hour epic starring Richard Burton", The Guardian 14 January 1984, p. 10 ^ "Wagner, Tony Palmer", WorldCat, retrieved 1 February 2014. ^ "Wagner", WorldCat, retrieved 1 February 2014 ^ Greenfield, Edward. "Back in the Ring", The Guardian, 14 June 1984, p. 11 ^ Fiddick, Peter. "Television", The Guardian, 24 December 1981, p. 10 ^ Miller, pp. 337–338 ^ "National Theatre", The Times, 8 July 1983, p. 7; and "National Theatre", The Times, 9 September 1983, p. 7 ^ a b Sir Ralph Richardson", The Times, 16 November 1983, p. 14; and Miller, pp. 342–343 ^ "Appeal to defend Mass sent to Vatican", The Times, 6 July 1971, p. 5 ^ "Witness for the Prosecution (1982)", British Film Institute, retrieved 18 January 2014; and Smithies, Sandy. "Television", The Guardian, 26 August 1985, p. 16 ^ Miller, p. 137; Stokes, John. "Typecast by his period", The Guardian, 24 November 1995, p. A22 ^ Quoted in Levin, Bernard. "Tynan, fizzing to the continue", The Times, 22 October 1980, p. 12 ^ Findlater, p. 128 ^ Hall, Peter. "Peter Hall on Ralph Richardson's Falstaff", The Guardian, 31 January 1996, p. A11 ^ Interview with David Ayliff, Theatre Archive Project, British Library, 18 December 2006 ^ a b Interview with Edward Hardwicke, Theatre Archive Project, British Library, 6 November 2007 ^ Tynan, pp. 98 and 102 ^ Gielgud (1979), p. 92 ^ Raynor, Henry. "Richardson on Orton's continue play", The Times, 17 December 1968, p. 14 ^ Miller, p. 150 ^ Hobson, p. 70

Sources

Agate, James (1934). First Nights. London: Nicholson and Watson. OCLC 1854236.  Agate, James (1946). The Contemporary Theatre, 1944 and 1945. London: Harrap. OCLC 1597751.  Billington, Michael (2002). One Night Stands – A Critic's View of Modern British Theatre. London: Nick Hern. ISBN 1854596608.  Billington, Michael (2007). Harold Pinter. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571234763.  Clough, Valerie (1989). Sir Ralph Richardson – A Life in the Theatre. Worthing, UK: Churchman. ISBN 1850931143.  Croall, Jonathan (2011). John Gielgud – Matinee Idol to Movie Star. London: Methuen. ISBN 1408131064.  Findlater, Richard (1983). These our Actors – A Celebration of the Theatre Acting of Peggy Ashcroft, John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier, Ralph Richardson. London: Elm Tree Books. ISBN 0241111358.  Gaye, Freda (ed.) (1967). Who's Who in the Theatre (fourteenth ed.). London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons. OCLC 5997224. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors catalogue (link) Gielgud, John (1979). An Actor and His Time. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0283985739.  Gielgud, John (2000). Gielgud on Gielgud. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340795026.  Gielgud, John; Richard Mangan (ed) (2004). Gielgud's Letters. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297829890. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors catalogue (link) Hall, Peter; John Goodwin (ed) (2000) . Peter Hall's Diaries. London: Oberon. ISBN 1840021020. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors catalogue (link) Hayman, Ronald (1971). Gielgud. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0435184008.  Hobson, Harold (1958). Ralph Richardson. London: Rockliff. OCLC 3797774.  Holden, Anthony (1988). Laurence Olivier. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0020332858.  Kulik, Karol (1975). Alexander Korda – The Man Who Could Work Miracles. London: W H Allen. ISBN 0491019432.  Miller, John (1995). Ralph Richardson – The Authorized Biography. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0283062371.  Morley, Sheridan (1985). "Ralph Richardson". The Great Stage Stars. London, and North Ryde, Australia: Angus & Robertson. ISBN 0207149704.  Neill, Michael (2006). "Introduction". Othello, the Moor of Venice. The Oxford Shakespeare. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0191568473.  O'Connor, Garry (1982). Ralph Richardson – An Actor's Life. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340270411.  Sinyard, Neil (2013). A Wonderful Heart – The Films of William Wyler. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0786435739.  Tanitch, Robert (1982). Ralph Richardson. London: Evans. ISBN 023745680X.  Tynan, Kenneth (1964). Tynan on Theatre. London: Penguin Books. OCLC 949598. 


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